- Six types of task for TBL
- From priming tasks and target tasks to language focus and grammar
- Making time for tasks and still covering the syllabus
In this first article I start by looking at what we mean by ‘task'. This will enable us to identify activities in our textbooks which have most of the characteristics of tasks. It will also enable us to identify activities which we can adjust and turn into tasks.
When is an activity not a task?
Task-based teaching is about creating opportunities for meaning-focused language use.
In other words, learners doing tasks will not just be
- speaking to practise a new structure e.g. doing a drill or enacting a dialogue or asking and answering questions using the ‘new' patterns;
- or writing to display their control of certain language items,
These are primarily form-focused activities, designed to practise language items that have been presented earlier. There is a place for form-focused activities in task-based learning (TBL), but activities such as these are not tasks.
Learners doing tasks (i.e. focusing on meanings) will be making free use of whatever English they can recall to express the things that they really want to say or write in the process of achieving the task goal.
What kind of activity is a task?
Willis and Willis (2007:12-14) offer the following criteria in the form of questions.
‘The more confidently you can answer yes to each of these questions, the more task-like the activity.
- Will the activity engage learners' interest?
- Is there a primary focus on meaning?
- Is there a goal or an outcome?
- Is success judged in terms of outcome?
- Is completion a priority?
- Does the activity relate to real world activities?'
Let us consider the task ‘Planning a class night out' in the light of these criteria.
- I think the lesson would certainly engage my learners' interest, especially if they knew they would actually be going on the chosen night out, so a) is Yes.
- Learners have strong preferences about nights out and would definitely be meaning what they say, so Yes to b).
- The first outcome for each pair is their finished plan for the night out, (which must be complete before they tell the class about it so the class can vote on the best plan) and a second outcome might be the real-world night out, so a confident Yes to c), d), e) and f).
Next is an example of an activity designed for an adult class. Which of the questions a) to f) might you answer with a fairly confident Yes? How task-like do you think it would be, and why?
Think of the busiest day you have had recently. Work in pairs.
Tell your partner all the things you did.
Generally adults enjoy talking about (even bragging about) how busy they are/have been, so this would score a Yes for a), b) and f). The first goal is to compare their busiest days. The natural completion point for each learner is the end of their day - and the final outcome - the selection of the busiest person is also clear, so we can answer Yes quite confidently to the other questions. The final writing activity sets up an engaging memory challenge game with a clear outcome - to identify the person written about.
Both the above activities, then, would count as tasks, and both generate several kinds of genuine meaning-focused interaction amongst learners and teacher.
How can you upgrade a less task-like activity?
This activity comes at the end of a unit focusing on the language of past time:
Work in pairs. Talk about your grandparents.
Think about this activity and apply the questions a) to f) above. Which questions would you answer with a Yes, and which would be Not sure or No? How could you adapt it to make it more task-like and get more Yes answers?
- You might answer Yes to a) and f) with some degree of confidence. We do, in real life, occasionally talk about our grandparents and our memories of them. If the topic ‘Grandparents' does not engage all learners, let them choose instead an elderly person they knew well.
- For b), the answer would probably be No, because the final instruction (Use the phrases and patterns from the box above) shows that this activity is intended largely to practise these particular ways of expressing past time presented earlier in the unit. Co-operative learners will be trying to make sentences about their grandparents not simply to give information but primarily to show mastery of the new forms. This is unlike natural language use. To make it more task-like, we could delete the final instruction, and do this activity early on in the unit, so learners are focusing more on meanings i.e. sharing their memories of their grandparents in a natural way rather than trying to incorporate particular language forms. Then the answer to b) would be Yes.
- For c), d) and e) the answers are also likely to be No; there is no goal or purpose given for talking about grandparents and learners have no way of knowing when they have said enough to complete the activity, or whether indeed they have succeeded or not. Some learners might end up saying very little.
Adding a goal or outcome to make a task
For the ‘Grandparents' activity we need to add a goal to give the activity a purpose and make the outcome more specific so that learners know when they have completed the task. Some sample outcomes follow here and you could add one of these sets of instructions, depending on which outcome you think would best engage the learners in your class.
- Try to find out three things that your grandparents' and your partner's grandparents' lives had in common. What was the biggest difference between them?
- Decide which one of your partner's grandparents was / is the most interesting person and give two reasons why you think so. Then tell the class about him/her and vote to decide on the three most interesting grandparents in the class.
- Describe two early memories you have of one particular grandparent. Tell your group. Take notes when listening to each other.
- Compare your memories - whose were the most interesting, most vivid, most amusing, saddest or strangest?
- Compare your groups' memories and try to find ways to classify them (e.g. to do with food or meal-times? games? outings? being ill? negative / positive things?) Then report your categories to the class, with examples. Did you all have similar ways of classifying?
So there are several potential outcomes (and you might well think of others) that could be created out of this activity to make it more task-like. In fact each of these would make a different task.
If learners are clear what the outcome should be, and know the number of things to list or describe, they are more likely to engage with the task, speak with more confidence and know when they have completed it. Successful task achievement will greatly increase their satisfaction and motivation. When, after completing the task cycle, they look more closely at language forms used by others doing similar tasks, they will already be familiar with the contexts and have experienced the need for some of those forms.
In this article, we have looked at six characteristics of a task and analysed two activities that would count as tasks. We have also turned one less task-like activity into a task by moving it to near the beginning of the text-book unit, making it meaning-focused rather than form-focused, adding a definite outcome and making the instructions as precise as possible so the completion point is clear.
In my next article we will look at different types of task, and see which kinds are most often used in textbooks and how we can incorporate more task types into our teaching.
Look at the three alternative sets of instructions (1 - 3.2) for the ‘Grandparents' activity above. Try to predict which of these (i.e. which outcome) would generate the most varied interaction patterns and the richest use of meaning-focused language amongst your learners.
Look at a unit in your textbook. How many primarily form-focused activities are there? And how many primarily meaning-focused? Choose one that your learners might engage with and try to ‘upgrade' it to generate richer meaning focused interaction and become more task-like.
- Read Chapter 1 ‘The basis of a task-based approach' in Doing Task-based Teaching by Dave and Jane Willis OUP 2007.
Richard's article presents an excellent overview of a task-based learning approach (TBL) and highlights its advantages over the more traditional Present, Practice, Produce (PPP) approach. He has a link to a detailed lesson plan for the task ‘Planning a class night out'.
Dave and Jane Willis 2007 Doing Task-based Teaching OUP
Written by Jane Willis, Consultant, Writer, UK
Next article > Six types of task for TBL
Thank you Jane for this invaluable help.
A colleague and I are actually writing a booklet for adult learners based on authentic material and tasks to exploit this material.
In the course of devicing the tasks we often ask ourselves "hang on there, is this a task?", so the a) to f) guideline great food for thought next time we sit down to come up with a real task.
I'll be writing again with some of our ideas for the booklet.
A big thank you again
Dear Mrs Willis,
on Friday I will have my oral exam in English at the University of Cologne and the main subject is actually TBLT. Would you be so kind to help me with the following questions:
How complex can a task become?
Why is TBL a modern approach?
I already have suggestions how to answer these questions, but it would really help me to get some suggestions from an expert.
I hope, you read my message before friday!
Thank you already in advance and best wishes from Germany!
I am a teacher from Hong Kong. It is so good that I have found this website where I have learned much more about TBL.
I am told to prepare TBL materials for our P.3 kids this year. In fact, there have been some materials already made by other teachers last year. But I found that they are not 'tasks'. Many teachers are required to prepare TBL materials but they are just too busy to know what actually TBL means. They have tendency to reproduce the activities and then call them as 'tasks'.
By the way, it seems to me that TBL focuses much only on speaking skills. But our school wants us to put stress on writing skills rather than other skills. Then how can I make use of TBL for teaching writing skills?
Regarding the example(Grandparents) given by you, if I ask the pupils to have a writing, like 'What makes a good Grandparent', based on their discussion after the Practice stage, is this still considered an 'outcome' or 'task', or just an exercise?
I am looking forwards to hearing from you.
A nice topic for a task: What makes a good Grandparent? I assume it will interest your students, (number 1 on my list of How task-like is it?) , and that there is a primary focus on meaning (number 2 on the list). You could also make this more specific and ‘do-able’ by adding: Think of, then write down, 3 (or 4) things that grandparents sometimes do that make them good grandparents.
So now – to your question about outcome:
‘if I ask the pupils to do some writing, like 'What makes a good Grandparent', based on their discussion after the Practice stage, is this still considered an 'outcome' or 'task', or just an exercise?’
As it stands – you have not mentioned why they are writing this? Who is going to read their writing and why? If you see this writing activity as a way to consolidate their learning, and a chance to display what they can do in terms of grammar and vocabulary, then it will be more like a language focus exercise. That in itself is fine – but less motivating perhaps for the children.
If you want to make it more task-like, give children a purpose for their writing and an audience to read what they have written. For example, the target task could be:
Conduct a class survey to canvas opinions on this topic, and find out what people think are the top five ways of being a good grandparent.
Mini-task – after a teacher-led class brainstorm about what makes a good grandparent get each pupil to write down their top 3 suggestions, giving an example in each case. (As you go round and help with wordings etc, encourage them to relate to their own experience or their or other people’s grandparents.) Put these up on the wall.
Pupils in pairs, go round and read them all and decide which are the 5 most common points. They make notes of these and add some examples for each.
Either - they report orally to the whole class, to get a class list of 5 points they all agree with, and Teacher writes up the final report on the board, jointly with the class making suggestions for wordings,
Or they form groups of 4, and write a final report between them, which is also displayed, for them to read and compare final versions - and spot any differences.
If you do this with 2 classes, then the final reports can be exchanged and each class can read what the other group thought and compare.
If you notice - here we have always given pupils a reason for writing and for reading each others' writing. And we have added a final outcome - the survey report - for them all to read and compare.
One way of preparing for this beforehand is for pupils to ask friends outside class what they think about what makes good grandparents, and report back orally to the class what they discovered. and then set the writing task.
By the way, Ken, what you said about teachers being too busy and simply re-labelling activities they already do as ‘tasks’ is a very common problem. That is exactly why I have written this article and also why Dave and I wrote our book about Doing Task-based Teaching. I do hope you can help them by suggesting ways they can ‘taskify’ their activities and getting them to read this article (and the other ones on TBL.) Can you print it out for them?
Thank you for writing in, Ken - very useful question!
All the best,
I'm a teacher from Brazil , currently studying about TBL at a graduate school.
I have to say I'm quite interested in applying many of the principles of TBL to my teaching.
However, I would like to know how it would work with students who have lower levels of proficiency and also if there is enough research and published materials to prove that it is an effective approach to learning languages.
This has reference to Jane Willis' replies to my questions about task-based teaching.
Thank you very much for your responses to my previous set of questions. You ended your reply with the sentence: “I hope this is helpful - please post other ways you have got your learners' feedback on tasks!” Let me respond to you with a long reply.
I teach the course Engineering English at an engineering college in Chennai, India. I can say I specialize in English for Science and Technology (EST) as I have been teaching EST courses since 1997 and my PhD research is on English for Engineering.
I give a number of tasks to students of engineering. Here I’d like to share with you one of the tasks that I had given to my first-year undergraduate students of engineering a few months ago and the effectiveness of the task in achieving the objectives set. Before that let me explain the context and in brief mention the area of my research.
Engineering English is a compulsory course for all the first-year students of engineering and technology studying at colleges affiliated to Anna University, Tamil Nadu, India. At the end of the third-year or at the beginning of the fourth-year, IT companies visit campuses to recruit candidates to their companies. Candidates with good communication skills and soft skills taste success and those who lack such skills become depressed and get frustrated. Very often recruiters complain that about 50 % of students do not have employability skills. When they mention the word ‘employability skills’ what actually they mean is ‘communication skills’. A number of educationists and HR managers have highlighted the importance of taking steps to enhance students’ communication skills. In this context, I started carrying out a research on evaluating the course and suggesting steps to modify the course based on the engineering students’ present and future language needs.
Visit an IT company and meet a HR manager or a few IT professionals. Talk to them about their job responsibilities and ask them who they talk to in English at the workplace and what language skills are important for them at work?
Your task is to identify their language needs, write a report to the teacher suggesting ways to modify the English language course to suit their present and future language needs.
The objectives of the task were:
- to enhance students’ speaking (interviewing) skills
- to develop their writing skills
- to expose them to the real world communication
- to identify the language needs of IT professionals
- to enable students to suggest activities and tasks to make the Engineering English course more effective
- to involve learners in the course design
List of language skills identified
The students identified a number of language skills IT professionals need to carry out their responsibilities effectively at the workplace.
- speaking politely
- using positive language
- distinguishing between formal and informal speech
- speaking convincingly
- breaking the ice before trying to talk to strangers
- asking questions and handling questions
- active listening
- writing reports
- giving an oral presentation
- speaking to a group
The effectiveness of the task was evaluated and during the evaluation session students gave their feedback about the task.
- Most students found the task very meaningful and enjoyable though some of them had difficulty meeting people and interviewing them.
- They found the task meaningful.
- It said it instilled confidence in them.
- The task created awareness among students about the language needs of students.
- They identified the language needs of IT professionals and it motivated them to prepare themselves to the workplace.
- They gave some valuable suggestions to modify the course.
Jane, I’d like to ask you to respond to these questions:
- What is your reaction to the task?
- If some students do not find a task 'interesting', is it not a task?
- How will you modify the task to involve maximum number of students?
Editor, ELTeCS ISL
Albert - you sent in a task that your Engineering students did and asked 3 questions which I shall now answer:
- What is your reaction to the task? ** MY reactions are much the same as your students' feedback - they obviously found the task engaging and the results were useful to them in real life - so it had a very useful outcome that can be acted on. It was not clear to me how much of the task they might do in their L1, (when they were talking to the company personnel, but at least the reports of results and recommendations were in English.
- If some students do not find a task 'interesting', is it not a task? ** It is still a task - but if students are not engaged they will probably not try so hard to interact and take full part in the task, so their learning opportunities will be reduced. Try to give unmotivated / disinterested students like this a particular role to fulfil and a goal to achieve (e.g. language advisor/ dictionary reference person; secretary / note-taker) presenter of final report. If they have an individual role they cannot simply rely on others to get the task done.
- How will you modify the task to involve maximum number of students? ** You did not say whether they did this task in teams or pairs or as individuals. I depends on local constraints - how many companies your engineering students could potentially gain access to. If you have 4 companies and 40 students then you would have to divide them into teams of ten, - divide again into pairs, and the 5 pairs interview (and record) 5 people in each company (one person per pair) ; if you have 80 students, so it is 2 teams of 10 per company, make sure each interview is recorded by the first team and then the second team can hear the interviews, and transcribe useful extracts for the report. Within each team of ten, allot jobs/roles and share the work around: share the interviewing task - 3 questions each; summarising responses from the interviews, writing thank you letters to the company people, preparing a report, choosing recorded extracts to play back for their presentation, divide up the presentation into sections and each pair be responsible for one section and so on.
Two things I shall now 'blog' about - ESP teaching and tasks V projects.
Dear Jane,Could you give us some ideas about how to increase students' writing during class time (i.e. extensive writing, for students who don't have time to do homework) and how to read/correct it during the lesson (for teachers who don't have time to do it after the lesson)? I guess the reply could lie along the lines of cooperative writing... within a TBL framework... but could you comment on particular ways of implementing it?
And since June is coming to an end, I'd like to say thanks a lot for being here!
Dear Laura -
Yes - as you say - 'cooperative writing... within a TBL framework' will work well.
Nearly all tasks (e.g. to propose three alternative solutions to a problem, or write a list of things to do in various circumstances with reasons) can be done largely through writing. In fact I had a writing class fairly recently where my students did very little other than read and write to and for each other, interspersed with short bursts of speaking to set things up or to give quick feed-back prior to re-writing for a specific purpose/audience. Obviously they needed a stimulus to get started - in my case I would choose a text from the bank of texts that students had selected themselves early on in the term (that saved me a lot of time!)
It is useful to distinguish between students writing for their own personal use (notes for a talk or a rough draft for a longer piece) or for a partner or group member to read or for a final 'published' product, e.g. class newspaper or web-page, as this will affect the kind of effort they put into it.
TIP - set the task and topic the lesson before so they can start thinking about what they can put, and look up words they need. Tell them they will start the next class by writing (and that you will give a rough assessment on how much they express in the time limit)
PRE-TASK PREPARATION: students can brainstorm (individually or in pairs or as a class) for one minute then each speed-write for 5 minutes to see how much they can write on that topic in the time. Teacher circulates to ensure everyone is on task, makes a list of good expressions or notes for later of any help that is needed.
TASK: Students can then condense the main ideas in their writing to an organised summary to be read by other members of the group - who then swap papers and comment on each other's ideas in writing, and pass them back.
Students revise their ideas in the light of the comments then decide (speaking) how to combine their ideas for a longer written piece (decide on who the intended audience wil be)
PLANNING Sts set up a writing and editorial process as a group (e.g. each group member writes one section, exchanges with a partner who edits it, and passes it to another group member (chief editor for a final revision. Teacher circulates acting as language advisor, correcting, enriching etc
REPORT - would happen when the finished pieces are 'published' for others to read. Put them up around walls for class to circulate and read to give feed-back, or on-line so sts can read in their own time) Insist on some kind of review process - sts read the others' work for some real purpose and comment (in writing or orally) with that purpose in mind.
Sts can go round to read a number of the pieces again this time collecting useful expressions from each other's work, and writing questions about language they have for the teacher. Teacher leads a follow-up session on language.
Follow-up: Encourage students to re-write at home, (putting it on-line?) embellishing their first attempt for a wider audience and/or to put into their portfolios for later assessment.
Tell students that in their end of term test they will have to 'speed write' on one of the topics / tasks covered in class and they will get grades for a wide vocabulary, (inc. use of lexical phrases) as well as organization and accuracy. This should encourage them to spend more time improving their work.
Other things they could write other than tasks - get them to make their own web-pages where they write their own or (say) their grandparents' life stories. YOu can spot-check them and comment briefly. Or make a class web page or on-line magazine..
The more they write (inc at home) the faster they will get and more they will improve. BUT if you use so much class time for writing, will they get enough speaking time?
Hope this helps. Comments please!
Sorry for the time lag in replying - I have been away on holiday.
I wonder if activity and task are completely different?
or they are two sides of a coin. In China, it is often believed that there is no difference between activity and task in the classroom, what do you think?
If you are free, your reply will be appreciated!!!
A thousand thanks!!!!
A good question - with a fairly simple answer. The term 'activity' is a general term referring to things students do in classrooms. So an activity could be anything - it may or may not be a task.
- If an activity has a clearly defined goal, is meaning -focused and if it has most of the other characteristics listed in the beginning of this article, it will be a task.
- On the other hand, an activity could be two students reading out a dialogue (practising pronuniation, intonation or maybe even a grammar pattern or function), or doing a grammar exercise. Neither of these is meaning-focused interaction, neither has a goal other than completing the activity. If there is no outcome, then an activity is not a task.
Sometimes people talk about communicative activities - these might be tasks - but apply the criteria in the article - how many questions can you answer Yes to? and check it out!
I hope this is clear.
Dear Olga - a very good question and the answer is certainly no.
Not everything needs to be a task. Learners also need time to practise language forms for example:
- pronunciation of new words and phrases and grammar patterns (i.e. getting their tongues round phrases they find difficult to say),
- listing new words and phrases in vocabulary note-books and getting spellings right,
- practising intonation and stress e.g. in a dialogue or before reading out loud or presenting their reports to the class... or when rehearsing a story to tell to the class or another group.
- doing grammar consolidation exercises, or consciousness raising exercises.
Al these activities focus on form, and there is research evidence to suggest that learners do benefit from this - if it is in the context of meaning. The main thing is, learners also need lots of meaningful input and chances to use English for themselves (without which they are most unlikely to learn to use their English) and it is tasks and task sequences that give them the chance to do this. So form focus activities are best done in the context of the task process - when learners are familiar with the meanings being expressed and have already met some of the forms in their input.
Task-based learning simply means that tasks are central to the learning process - not that they are the only thing you should do in class... Have a look at Dave Willis' second article on form-focus in task-based teaching - he clarifies this.
Thanks for the question! And do feel free to comment on or add to my response.
Olga - I had not meant to imply 'activities' are negative - just that sometimes text-books might offer activities that are look like they are meant to generate communicative interaction but in fact rarely do; like a pair-work dialogue to complete or a role-play that comes after a grammar presentation, where the main structure has to be said or practised as part of the activity.
Form focus activities are not negative either - they can be beneficial - but they need to be part of a wider meanning based approach.
By the way, DAve Willis's article I mentioned in my first reply is: Form focus and recycling: getting grammar
Have any of you identified activities that could be tasks in your own text books - using the questions / criteria from this article?
If you would like my comments on one or two of them, please write the instructions for the activity here and say where it comes in the unit (i.e. what have learners just done before this activity?)
I am looking forward to receiving some activities to 'taskify'!
PS Please also give the name of your text-book and age of your learners. Thanks.
1. You will present the company you have researched and try to convince other members of the group that they should invest in it.
2. You will listen to the other presentations and decide which ones you would like to invest in and how much you will invest in them.
You have a budget of $2,000,000
You can invest all of the money in one company, or you can divide the money as you like between the companies.
Make notes about your investments:
Company (s) invested in:
How much invested:
Key reason for investing:
Dear Nik, thanks for your problematic task. Yes, I think you are right - the dual roles must have been too much for the learners (it would be for me too!) So let's look at it in terms of a task cycle...
Basically I think it is a good task - in fact it makes a whole task sequence: this is how I might do it. I don't know if this would suit YOUR sts - do tell me! So how about this:
Out of class , learners as individuals do two tasks:
Priming task: Reading the tips on making a sales pitch
Reading task: Researching a company with a view to persuading people to invest in it:
These are both proper tasks in their own right. Learners are reading for meaning, to learn something new and to improve business skills, with a definite purpose in mind - the goal being to persuade others to invest.
Planning time - teacher gives them 10-15 minutes to refine / rehearse their company presentations with a partner. They can ask the teacher about any language queries they have.
Public presentation phase (like a Report in a Task-Planning- Report cycle)
Each student has x minutes to sell his company to the whole group or half the group (dep on size) . Group take notes and can ask 2 or 3 questions. After 3 presentations, the audience group split into 3s or 4s and discuss which company so far they would choose to invest in and why. The 3 presenters get together and discuss how their presentations went and suggest improvements
Repeat - have another 3 sts present their companies to the group audience etc until all have presented and all speakers have evaluated.
Learners return to their first partners and decide together how they would each invest their cash and why. They then formally report this decision to the whole group.
Feed-back and reflection
Learners spend 5 minutes writing a brief evaluation of this whole process (this can be anonymous.)
What they liked best / found most useful / suggestions for next time....
Give this in to you as teacher. OR they write on 'post-it notes' and display on the wall of the class room for others to read.
Rationale: more interaction and different types of discourse (private and public); more chances to plan and reflect on their performances; the 'partners' at start and finish give support too.
What do you think - would this work with YOUR group?
I very much like Nik's task. I'd like to suggest a different way of organizing it. I think its difficulty does not lie so much in the dual role itself, but rather in the transition from the seller to the investor. Students simply can't be both at the same time. You solved the problem by splitting the group into the presenters and the audience and prevented it from being a mere passive receptor by the interposition of discussion breaks. The problem seems to be that, after all, the budget will be decided in pairs, so the cooperation with other pairs is not very natural.
Nick's activity resembles Sarah Cunningham and Peter Moor's 'Ambrosia' task in Cutting Edge Intermediate, Module 9, p.96-97, except here the pitches are created and delivered by students themselves, which makes it more interesting and exciting.
What I suggest is as follows:
- The priming task and reading task stay the same.
- Students work in pairs, compare the companies prepared for homework and decide which one has a bigger potential for getting an investment.
- Students prepare a presentation in pairs. They are going to present IN PAIRS as well (it is a real-life situation, many public talks are done in groups). This will save up presentation time, since sometimes it may feel a bit lengthy. If there are still too many pairs, a time limit can be set (say, 3 minutes)
- Students present in pairs. The other students take notes. A chart similar to the 'Ambrosia' task may be prepared by the teacher for each student to fill in while listening to the talks, the columns being 'How much money do they ask?, 'What are the main reasons?', 'Further details', and 'My budget'.
- Students work in pair. They compare their notes. Perhaps they don't remember something and (surely) they want to ask further questions. In pairs, students prepare a few more questions for each company.
- The pairs split up: one of them is the 'Representative', the other the 'Scout'. 'Representatives' stay at their desks to answer questions about their company. The 'scouts' walk around the class asking the prepared questions. They write notes in the third ('Further details') column in the chart. They should be encouraged to ask some more to get as much info as possible to be able to decide about their budget. Since there are the same number of representatives and scouts, everybody should speak at the same time.
- The scouts return back to their partners and report about the companies. Together they decide about their budget.
- Students present their budgets. The winner is the one who get most of the money.
This procedure seems rather smooth and the transition from the seller and buyer quite natural. Apart from organizing the notes, the chart also gives a nice visual overview of the procedure and directs the students.
It involves many different types of discourse: public and private, and different types of cooperative work: comparing, sorting, deciding, creating, reporting etc.
I have done a similar activity myself, called 'A machine fair'. After a lot of priming (video, vocab work etc.) students invented their machines and gave presentations. Then one of them stayed in their 'stall' and explained further details, while the other walked around asking questions. They also had a budget to buy machines. Alternatively, they voted for the best machine.
Perhaps you'd like to comment on this,