Language is made up of systems and skills. The four systems of language are grammar, vocabulary, phonology and discourse.

The UCLES English proficiency exams explicitly test the four skills and also two systems, grammar and vocabulary.

In the classroom
Although most modern methodologies and approaches focus on communication and make little reference to systems, many course books still have a structure based on the systems and skills mentioned above. Discourse itself is normally not identified separately, but included in skills areas.

See also:

Further links:

Research and insight

We have hundreds of case studies, research papers, publications and resource books written by researchers and experts in ELT from around the world. 

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