Register often refers to the degree of formality of language, but in a more general sense it means the language used by a group of people who share similar work or interests, such as doctors or lawyers.

Example
For formal and informal register; 'Would you mind passing the salt?' is appropriate for a formal situation with strangers, whereas 'Pass me the salt' would be used for a situation where friends are talking, or possibly when being rude.

In the classroom
Although register is a complex area, the most common aspect looked at in language learning is the degree of formality. Teachers often divide functional language into three working categories, formal, neutral and informal.

Further links:
https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/register-degrees-formality
https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/email-writing
https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/a-business-letter

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