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In language learning orthography can have two meanings. One is the way a language is spelt and the other is the way the letters are written. English orthography (spelling) is notoriously difficult for both native speakers and learners and produces corresponding difficulties in pronunciation. Almost every sound in English has more than one correct spelling.
a) English has an alphabetic orthography, because words are made using an alphabet; b) The orthography of English handwriting can cause problems for Arabic speakers at beginner levels.
In the classroom
One important way to help learners with spelling is to teach them how to use dictionaries and dictionary websites correctly. Low-level learners also need to learn how to ask their teacher for the correct spelling of a word, and understand the letters of the alphabet.