In this section, you will find a number of articles, which have been written to help you develop your skills and knowledge as a teacher in the professional practice 'Understanding learners'. From primary-aged students to adult learners of English, the articles you will find here are practical, insightful and full of ideas to support your teaching and planning for all kinds of classrooms.It also involves dividing lessons into coherent stages, planning board work, selecting and describing interaction patterns for different activities during the lesson, and planning for differentiated learning. 

Planning lessons and courses includes anticipating problems that may arise during the lesson, and planning how to respond to these, describing how learners’ understanding will be checked or assessed and describing when and how feedback will be provided. It is important to be able to describe how a lesson is linked to those before and after it, plan a broad outline for a sequence of lessons, including the recycling of learning content and reflect on the approach and effectiveness of lesson planning, incorporating learner feedback and other evidence.

Find useful articles

A framework for planning a listening skills lesson - listening article

By developing their ability to listen well we develop our students' ability to become more independent learners, as by hearing...

Controversies in Business English - speaking article - guest writers

I began teaching business English in 1980 and have observed over the years huge differences in the way we teach.


Being able to plan well is one of the key skills that a teacher needs to have.  It involves being able to imagine what is going to...

Designing Business English programmes 1 - methodology article

This is the first of three articles on designing Business English programmes to suit students' needs.

Designing Business English programmes 2 - methodology article

This is the second article in a three part series. In the first part we looked at needs analysis and how to define goals and objectives...

Designing Business English programmes 3 - methodology article

This is the final article in a three part series. In the first part we looked at needs analysis and how to define goals and objectives....

English Learning Circles - a path to learner independence - resources article

Getting students to use English with each other is a problem which is often difficult to overcome. Learning Circles are one way to help...

Find the gap - increasing speaking in class - speaking article

The communicative approach to language learning stresses the need for meaningful communication, emphasising that if students have a...


When you’re planning your lessons how much time do you spend thinking about how you’re going to group students for the activities in...


If you would like to set up an out-of-class English Learning Circle with your students, here are 8 things you need to consider:


Making grammar more interesting for students is one of the great challenges any EFL teacher faces.


Successful CLIL depends on a variety of factors. This paper discusses four factors relevant to successful implementation of CLIL....


When you are faced with planning whole lessons on your own for the first time it can seem like a daunting task.


Why should I write a plan? The best option is always to be prepared. Once you have prepared your lesson you will feel much more...

Making time for tasks and still covering the syllabus - methodology article - guest writers

This is the last in a series of four articles which will explore how to integrate a task-based approach into a typical textbook to...

Negotiated objectives - methodology article

Many students, especially at intermediate level, express the feeling that they are not making any progress. This is because their...


In this article, Luke Meddings reflects on the constraints coursebooks can put on the learning experience in the classroom, and offers...


People spend a huge chunk of their everyday conversation time talking about themselves and the people they know, so the most natural...

Planning 1 - methodology article

Planning is one of those essential skills of the competent teacher. 

Planning 2 - methodology article

Planning 1 outlined the rationale behind lesson planning. This article looks at some of the elements to consider when planning an actual...

Planning a grammar lesson

Without grammar, words hang together without any real meaning or sense. In order to be able to speak a language to some degree of...


Writing, unlike speaking, is not an ability we acquire naturally, even in our first language - it has to be taught. Unless L2 learners...

Pre-listening activities - listening article

Listening skills are hard to develop. Students can do a variety of work before listening to help them understand.


There are many ways of revising and consolidating grammar, but I've found it's often useful to give students short passages containing...

Project work with teenagers - methodology article

Project work is becoming an increasingly popular feature within the ELT classroom. Common projects are class magazines, group wall...


For many people, standing up in public and doing a speech is one of their greatest fears. For many language students in particular, this...


Being faced with a class which won't speak can be very disappointing after all your planning. When there are rows of blank faces or...

Role-play - speaking article

In this article I will outline several reasons for using role-play in the classroom and I will offer some tips for getting the most out...


There’s nothing like a group project to get students talking.


Skills circuits are a fun way to review language.