If you've not worked in CLIL before, this article will give you a point to start from, in terms of both learners and materials. TeachingEnglish is currently growing its CLIL resources, and you can find more articles and activities on this page: www.teachingenglish.org.uk/clil.

“Chris, we’ve been asked to work with some schools to develop their CLIL courses. Can you look after that?”  That was the first time I heard the term CLIL. I said yes, not really knowing what I was letting myself in for, but now, many years down the line I hope some things I learnt can be of use to others having to design and teach CLIL courses.

Much has been written on what CLIL is and why to do it, for example the articles on TeachingEnglish, but there is very little practical guidance on how to plan and teach CLIL lessons. If you are a subject teacher who has been asked to teach in English (or any other language for that matter), or a language teacher who has been asked to help teach content then this article will show you where to start.

Where to start
The first things to think about when planning a CLIL lesson, or indeed a whole course, are the who and the what. That is who your students are – their level of English (or whatever the second language is), level of content knowledge, and their requirements. What refers to what you will teach, in terms of both content and language, and what materials to use. The who feeds in to the what.

Who your students are
In one secondary school in Italy that I taught CLIL in the students had generally quite a high level of English and that meant that I could focus more on the content side (here science and technology), using English as a vehicle for content. With these students, I was able to adapt material designed for native English pupils. On the other hand, in another school the English level was quite weak, so I had to go for a more language-oriented approach, focusing on the particular vocabulary related to the content areas (in this case art and design). With these pupils, native English text books were linguistically too hard for them, so I had to write and adapt my own materials to both teach key art and design vocabulary and also develop language skills, with the goal of allowing these students to be able to use “real” English content text books by their last year of school.

Cognitive load
Another important factor to consider when selecting materials is cognitive load – that is you don’t want to blow their brains with too much information. This can be done by choosing a relatively simple content area or by using an area that you have already covered in L1 and doing the CLIL lesson / course as revision and extension.

A colleague in a Japanese university recently explained to me how he chose his materials. He teaches an introductory English course to help science and engineering undergraduates be able to cope with the English that they will need later on at university. To do this he uses a science text book designed for native English secondary schools. This works very well for both teacher and student as the content level is not too hard, but provides an authentic context for the vocabulary that the students will need later on. As the book is already there with its exercises ready-made, all that remains for the teacher is to design activities to teach the language that is in the book.

Finding CLIL materials
There are also many sources of materials on the internet, some good ones are in the Links section of this site . One particularly useful one is Wikipedia, both the normal English and the 'Simple English' sites are great sources of texts that can be legally adapted and used in class.

If language teachers and content teachers are working together then it’s vital to work as a team. If you can then observe each other’s lessons and talk together. Content teachers will have loads of materials which you may be able to find equivalents of in English, and language teachers will probably have ideas as to how to exploit those materials for language.

How to exploit materials
When you’ve found a text that you want to cover (written or listening), the next question is how to exploit it. Here language teachers are in familiar territory, but subject teachers are probably less familiar with the techniques of how to exploit a text for language. One of the first aspects to think about may be the vocabulary – is there any technical or specialist vocabulary that your students need to know for the course or to understand the text? If so then you might want to pre-teach this by getting students to match words to definitions or pictures, or by making a gap-fill. Alternatively, you could help them discover the meanings through the text – helping them to guess meaning from context.

Your main activity will probably concentrate on general comprehension of the text. You can do this with comprehension questions, information gaps, jigsaw reading tasks, jumble tasks, or many of the other ideas on the Try section of TeachingEnglish. 

Follow-up activities can work on reinforcing the vocabulary taught earlier and developing both language skills and comprehension of the topic. These activities can include group discussions, individual presentations, making posters and writing about the topic (for homework or in class).

Have a look at the CLIL activities on TeachingEnglish for more ideas. 

David Graddol once noted that when CLIL works, it works well, but it is hard to do well. Hopefully this article will help you to avoid some of the pitfalls – spending too much time looking for materials and designing. I’m sure you’ll enjoy the rewarding experience of being a CLIL teacher – seeing your students develop their language as well as knowledge and understanding of the world. If you have any comments, please feel free to write them below and we can start a discussion on the area of CLIL lesson and course planning.

By Chris Baldwin



The article on CLIL activities is very useful and reasonable. I ams ure on e need not be too ambitious with CLIL materials, as the Japanese practice referred to in the article indicates.
MY own experience in applying CLIL in the humanities at university shows that a balance of the who and what in CLIL matters a lot. I had taught employing CLIL before the this term came into being. It can extend the student's education considerably. My students majoring in EFL and literature had been instructed in literary criticism, language teaching practice and journalism over and above their programmes in literary theory and linguistics while cvompleting their programme. They happen to come up thanks these days, so I tend to believe that CLIL does work for young people, especially when extended professional skills and their combination are required in these days of thrift and technology.
Thank you. marija Liudvika Rutkauskaite

Thanks for your CLIL post. I'm currently doing my PhD in CLIL, particularly looking at materials development for foreign language contexts. It's not easy to talk about CLIL as there are so many models. Besides, there are no recipes or how-to books (and there shouldn't be either given the importance of context in CLIL methodology).
As regards materials development, it´s not an easy task but by having teachers developing materials together for each specific context we can overcome the difficulty that international editions find when attempting to produce materials for a wide market. After all, we need to bear in mind that CLIL needs to somehow reflect the school curriculum. How can an international textbook reflect that given variables such as students' age, cogntive level, language proficiency, school subjects, among others?
Kind regards,

Thanks for your comments. I'm glad that the article is useful. I'd like to take up Dario's comment on material produced for international use. I agree totally that it's very difficult to reflect all the variables mentionned but on the other hand there are common threads that run through curricula world-wide - everyone learns how to count, to take a simple example. In the materials I'm writing for teachingenglish I'm looking for common threads to try to produce flexible activities that can be adapted to different contexts. It is, though, vital for teachers in their own contexts to produce and adapt materials suitable for their own students.Any comments?Chris

To certain extent I agree with Chris that definitely we cant take care of all the variables. But the major variables which I think we should take care of are the background of the students and the context where you will be applying it. So the concerned teacher plays a major role in the success of CLIL, and he should be dynamic and intelligent enough while selecting materials. But Chris is there anything which we can say that can be used in any classroom with a certain age group irrespective of their context, background, teacher's competence and classroom strength etc etc. Which can be called to be an real international method or material?

Thanks for the educative article. I am writing my Masters Thesis on CLIL materials development for EFL students just like Dario and I was wondering if you have link to more materials on this topic.

Well, my school is planning to conduct CLIL in the curriculum. I think it's a good idea to do it because we can expose the language skills through the content especially the terms. I have a question about it. How much should I limit teaching the concept of certain subjects that I don't master? Since I'm an English teacher, well I think I can't teach the concept of math surely.

I am going to teach statistics to a group of ELT students, and based on my experience, sometimes there are many students who still have low level of English even though they are studying in an English education study program that prepares them to be future English teachers. In such a situation, I imagine myself teaching statistics in a CLIL atmosphere. Can I say so? Second, I need help with materials especially vocabulary related to math operations in English such as how to say X°, √a, etc in English sentences. Thanks.

I have a lot questions about this information is who has been asked to teach ? in who has been asked to help teach content?
This article probably will be showing where to start.
The first things I think about when planning a CLIL lesson I need to know that is who my students are.
The second thing that I could focus more on the content side and my students too.
The third thing is very important what factor I consider when I am selecting materials is cognitive load?
The fourth thing my content that I am working is then it’s vital to work as a team and how to exploit materials because when you’ve found a text that I want to cover and is how to exploit it and my main activity will probably concentrate on general comprehension of the text and how feels my students with that material.
Thanks Dario for help me with my class.

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