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  • Mechanical activities are activities learners do which are not meaningful but which may be necessary in order to have the tools to use language. The move away from mechanical to communicative activity has been emphasized and prioritized for many...
  • Logical/mathematical intelligence is one of the many types of intelligence described in multiple intelligence theory. People with significant logical/mathematical intelligence are often good at logical reasoning and scientific investigation.For...
  • Linking is when sounds are joined together or when a sound is inserted between two others to make them easier to say.ExampleWhen we say ‘I did it!' we join together the /d/ and the /it/ to produce ‘I didit'. When we say ‘I am' we insert a /j/ sound...
  • Linguistic intelligence - also known as verbal-linguistic - is one of the many types of intelligence described in multiple intelligence theory. People with significant linguistic intelligence are often good at languages and enjoy reading and writing...
  • A lexical chunk is a group of words that are commonly found together. Lexical chunks include collocations but these usually just involve content words, not grammar.ExampleIn this dialogue there are five possible chunks:- Did you stay long at the...
  • Language use refers to the communicative meaning of language. It can be compared to usage, which refers to the rules for making language and the structures we use to make it.ExampleOne use of the third conditional is to express regret, e.g. ‘If I...
  • Language usage refers to the rules for making language, i.e. the structures used. It can be compared to use, which considers the communicative meaning of language.ExampleThe usage of the third conditional is: If + past perfect + would + present...
  • Kinesics is the study of non-verbal communication achieved by movement of the body.ExampleThis includes gestures such as waving or tapping your fingers, eye movements such as winking and rolling, and body movements such as shrugging your shoulders....
  • Initiation-response-feedback, or IRF, is a pattern of discussion between the teacher and learner. The teacher initiates, the learner responds, the teacher gives feedback. This approach to the exchange of information in the classroom has been...
  • Intrapersonal intelligence is one of the many types of intelligence described in multiple intelligence theory. People with strong intrapersonal intelligence are often introspective, prefer working alone, and are very self-aware.ExampleA student with...
  • A horseshoe layout is a way of organizing learners' seats in a class in the form of a horseshoe.ExampleThe teacher needs to use the board a lot in a class so arranges the seats in a horseshoe shape.In the classroomA horseshoe shape is a very...
  • A homonym is a word that has the same sound or spelling as another but a different meaning. Homonyms can be separated into two groups, homographs (same spelling) and homophones (same sound).
  • Group work is when the learners work together on a task or activity in groups.ExampleLearners in threes, a class separated into two, and an open class, are all examples of groups.In the classroomGroup work increases the opportunities for all...
  • Graded readers are reading books that contain language adjusted to the level of the learner rather than authentic language.ExampleMany ELT publishers produce graded readers for a wide range of levels.In the classroomGraded readers can help learners...
  • Graded language is classroom language that is adapted to the level of the learners in some way. Many course books use graded language. It can be compared with authentic language, which is not changed in any way.ExampleAn intermediate level class are...
  • Gradable adjectives are adjectives which have different degrees and so can be graded. They can be compared with non-gradable adjectives, which do not have degree.Example‘Hot' and ‘cold' are both gradable adjectives. You can say ‘very hot', ‘a bit...
  • The glottal stop is a consonant sound produced when the flow of air is stopped by the glottis closing, and then released. Many languages use glottal stops, often much more than in English.ExampleThe sound /t/ in ‘cat' is often a glottal stop sound....
  • Fossilization refers to the process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily be corrected.ExampleMany advanced level learners who have Spanish as an L1 do not distinguish between ‘he' and ‘she'. This could be a fossilized error....
  • A ‘find someone who' activity is a speaking activity which involves learners trying to find someone in the group who matches a description.ExampleThe group are practising using the present perfect for experiences. Amongst the group there are...
  • If a test has face validity then it looks like a valid test to those who use it. Face validity can be compared with content validity, which describes how far the test actually measures what it aims to measure.ExampleMany public English exams have...

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