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  • Affective strategies are learning strategies concerned with managing emotions, both negative and positive. The relationship between affective strategies and learning is not clear, but a positive affective environment helps learning in general...
  • Feedback is information a teacher or another speaker, including another learner, gives to learners on how well they are doing, either to help the learner improve specific points, or to help plan their learning. Feedback can be immediate, during an...
  • Synchronous learning occurs when the learner and the teacher are in the same place at the same time. It can be compared with asynchronous learning, where learner and teacher may not be in the same place at the same time. Both terms are often used...
  • Word stress indicates which syllables are stressed - or emphasised - in a word.Example‘Photograph' has word stress Ooo (stress on the first syllable), ‘photographer' has word stress oOoo (stress on the second syllable).In the classroomThere are many...
  • Visual/spatial intelligence is one of the many types of intelligence described in multiple intelligence theory. People with strong visual/spatial intelligence often have a strong visual memory and are artistic.ExampleA student with strong visual/...
  • Visual aids can be defined in two ways: as a picture or a diagram you show learners to help their understanding, or in a broader sense as anything you show learners in a classroom to do this.
  • The topic sentence is a sentence in a paragraph which shows what the paragraph is about and works as a summary of it. It is often the first sentence of the paragraph.
  • Team teaching is when two or more teachers plan to teach a class together for some reason, for a lesson, or more than a lesson.ExampleA new teacher is having difficulty with a group, and a more experienced teacher works together on a plan for a...
  • A teacher diary is a diary where a teacher records what happens in their classes and their thoughts about it. Teacher diaries are used as development tools.ExampleAfter a class that went badly, the teacher makes notes in her diary about what...
  • A task-based syllabus is based on task-based learning, an approach where learners carry out tasks such as solving a problem or planning an activity. The language learnt comes out of the linguistic demands of the activity. A task-based syllabus is...
  • Synonyms are words that mean the same or almost the same. Although many words in English mean similar things, few are true synonyms. Aspects that make words different include register, connotation and collocation.ExampleSynonyms of ‘thin' include ‘...
  • A syllable-timed language is a language whose syllables take approximately equal amounts of time to pronounce. It can be compared with a stress-timed language, where there is approximately the same amount of time between stressed syllables. Learners...
  • A subordinate - or dependent - clause is a clause which adds more information to a sentence but is incomplete and not a sentence on its own. It functions like a noun, adverb or adjective. ExampleI just cannot understand why you did that. In...
  • A subjective test is evaluated by giving an opinion. It can be compared with an objective test, which has right or wrong answers and so can be marked objectively. Subjective tests are more challenging and expensive to prepare, administer and...
  • Stative verbs are verbs that describe a state. They can be compared with action or dynamic verbs, which describe an action. Example 'Know' and ‘like' are examples of stative verbs. In the classroomThe inductive approach is a good way to...
  • Sociocultural awareness means awareness of the societies and cultures of the target language, and therefore of the contexts the language is used in. Teachers themselves transmit information subconsciously about culture and society through their...
  • Slips are mistakes caused by temporary factors such as a learner being tired, nervous, excited or distracted. They can be compared with errors, which are caused by a learner not knowing something. Some people use the term mistake to describe slips....
  • Second language acquisition, or SLA, has two meanings. In a general sense it is a term to describe learning a second language. More specifically, it is the name of the theory of the process by which we acquire - or pick up - a second language. This...
  • The silent way is a methodology of teaching language based on the idea that teachers should be as silent as possible during a class but learners should be encouraged to speak as much as possible. There are three basic principles:- The learner needs...
  • A relative clause is a clause which tells us more about a noun or a noun phrase. There are two types, defining and non-defining. Defining add essential information to tell us what we are talking about, non-defining add extra information.Example‘They...

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