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  • Counselling is a teacher talking with a learner about their learning and advising them. It can be done in a formal or informal way, and integrated into the beginning or end of a language course.ExampleAt the end of the course, each learner has 15...
  • A correction code is used to show learners what kind of mistakes they have made in written work. The teacher underlines each mistake and writes a symbol or an abbreviation next to it, showing the kind of mistake.Example‘We made our homework' - WW (...
  • Continuous assessment means assessing aspects of learners' language throughout their course and then producing a final evaluation result from these assessments. It can be compared with a final or summative assessment, which only assesses the learner...
  • Concord refers to grammatical agreement between different parts of a sentence. Some aspects of concord are more difficult for learners to learn than others, for example the third person ‘s'.
  • A compound word is made up of other words. It can be compared to a derivative, which is made up of a word plus a bound structure such as a prefix or a suffix. ExampleBackache and filmgoer are examples of compound words. In the classroom...
  • Compensation strategies are communication strategies used by learners to compensate for limitations in their language. Different kinds of learners have preferences for different kinds of learning strategies, for example female learners tend to...
  • Community-building software allows users to create and maintain an online community.ExampleJoomla! is open-source software which can be used to build a community.In the classroomWhether teachers create a new community or use an existing commercial...
  • Communicative competence refers to a learner's ability to use language to communicate successfully. Canale and Swain (1980) defined it as composing competence in four areas:Words and rulesAppropriacyCohesion and coherenceUse of communication...
  • The cognitive-code approach of the 1970s emphasised that language learning involved active mental processes, that it was not just a process of habit formation (the assumption underlying the audiolingual method that came before it). Lessons focussed...
  • Cognitive style refers to the way a person thinks and processes information. Many of the most useful models of cognitive style place learners on a bi-polar scale. These include field dependence - independence, convergent-divergent, and holist-...
  • Cognates are words in English and the learner's language that are similar and have similar meaning. They can be compared to false cognates, which look similar but have different meanings.ExampleThe Spanish word pausa has a similar meaning to the...
  • A class round-up is an activity where the teacher and learners summarise what they have been doing during the class. Class round-ups are important not only to focus learner attention on information but also to help the process of remembering it....
  • A class reader is a book that the learners read and analyse together in the class and as homework over an extended period of time. It may be graded or have authentic language. ExampleThe class are reading a collection of short stories. The teacher...
  • A class library is a collection of books kept in the classroom and used for extensive reading, not generally for classroom activities.ExampleA classroom library can include readers, the teacher's own books, and books lent by learners.In the...
  • A blog, or weblog, is a website which functions as a diary or personal journal. The writer makes regular additions to the site in text, file and image form, and others add comments. The latest entry appears first, and other people can leave comments...
  • Awareness-raising activities aim to make learners more aware of language and so improve their understanding, but do not involve learners in using the language themselves. As such, awareness-raising activities are often the first stage of learning...
  • Auxiliary verbs are added to main verbs to make them work in other forms, such as questions, negatives, and other times.   Example‘do', ‘have' and ‘be' are examples of auxiliary verbs. In the classroom Drilling or matching activities are...
  • An authentic task is a task that native speakers of a language would do in everyday life. When learners do an authentic task they are doing something that puts real communicative demands on them.
  • Anaphoric reference means that a word in a text refers back to other ideas in the text for its meaning. It can be compared with cataphoric reference, which means a word refers to ideas later in the text.   Example ‘I went out with Jo on Sunday....

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