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  • Cognates are words in English and the learner's language that are similar and have similar meaning. They can be compared to false cognates, which look similar but have different meanings.ExampleThe Spanish word pausa has a similar meaning to the...
  • A class round-up is an activity where the teacher and learners summarise what they have been doing during the class. Class round-ups are important not only to focus learner attention on information but also to help the process of remembering it....
  • A class reader is a book that the learners read and analyse together in the class and as homework over an extended period of time. It may be graded or have authentic language. ExampleThe class are reading a collection of short stories. The teacher...
  • A class library is a collection of books kept in the classroom and used for extensive reading, not generally for classroom activities.ExampleA classroom library can include readers, the teacher's own books, and books lent by learners.In the...
  • A blog, or weblog, is a website which functions as a diary or personal journal. The writer makes regular additions to the site in text, file and image form, and others add comments. The latest entry appears first, and other people can leave comments...
  • Awareness-raising activities aim to make learners more aware of language and so improve their understanding, but do not involve learners in using the language themselves. As such, awareness-raising activities are often the first stage of learning...
  • Auxiliary verbs are added to main verbs to make them work in other forms, such as questions, negatives, and other times.   Example‘do', ‘have' and ‘be' are examples of auxiliary verbs. In the classroom Drilling or matching activities are...
  • An authentic task is a task that native speakers of a language would do in everyday life. When learners do an authentic task they are doing something that puts real communicative demands on them.
  • Anaphoric reference means that a word in a text refers back to other ideas in the text for its meaning. It can be compared with cataphoric reference, which means a word refers to ideas later in the text.   Example ‘I went out with Jo on Sunday....
  • Affective strategies are learning strategies concerned with managing emotions, both negative and positive. The relationship between affective strategies and learning is not clear, but a positive affective environment helps learning in general...
  • Feedback is information a teacher or another speaker, including another learner, gives to learners on how well they are doing, either to help the learner improve specific points, or to help plan their learning. Feedback can be immediate, during an...
  • Synchronous learning occurs when the learner and the teacher are in the same place at the same time. It can be compared with asynchronous learning, where learner and teacher may not be in the same place at the same time. Both terms are often used...
  • Word stress indicates which syllables are stressed - or emphasised - in a word.Example‘Photograph' has word stress Ooo (stress on the first syllable), ‘photographer' has word stress oOoo (stress on the second syllable).In the classroomThere are many...
  • Visual/spatial intelligence is one of the many types of intelligence described in multiple intelligence theory. People with strong visual/spatial intelligence often have a strong visual memory and are artistic.ExampleA student with strong visual/...
  • Visual aids can be defined in two ways: as a picture or a diagram you show learners to help their understanding, or in a broader sense as anything you show learners in a classroom to do this.
  • The topic sentence is a sentence in a paragraph which shows what the paragraph is about and works as a summary of it. It is often the first sentence of the paragraph.
  • Team teaching is when two or more teachers plan to teach a class together for some reason, for a lesson, or more than a lesson.ExampleA new teacher is having difficulty with a group, and a more experienced teacher works together on a plan for a...
  • A teacher diary is a diary where a teacher records what happens in their classes and their thoughts about it. Teacher diaries are used as development tools.ExampleAfter a class that went badly, the teacher makes notes in her diary about what...
  • A task-based syllabus is based on task-based learning, an approach where learners carry out tasks such as solving a problem or planning an activity. The language learnt comes out of the linguistic demands of the activity. A task-based syllabus is...
  • Synonyms are words that mean the same or almost the same. Although many words in English mean similar things, few are true synonyms. Aspects that make words different include register, connotation and collocation.ExampleSynonyms of ‘thin' include ‘...
  • A syllable-timed language is a language whose syllables take approximately equal amounts of time to pronounce. It can be compared with a stress-timed language, where there is approximately the same amount of time between stressed syllables. Learners...
  • A subordinate - or dependent - clause is a clause which adds more information to a sentence but is incomplete and not a sentence on its own. It functions like a noun, adverb or adjective. ExampleI just cannot understand why you did that. In...
  • A subjective test is evaluated by giving an opinion. It can be compared with an objective test, which has right or wrong answers and so can be marked objectively. Subjective tests are more challenging and expensive to prepare, administer and...
  • Stative verbs are verbs that describe a state. They can be compared with action or dynamic verbs, which describe an action. Example 'Know' and ‘like' are examples of stative verbs. In the classroomThe inductive approach is a good way to...
  • Sociocultural awareness means awareness of the societies and cultures of the target language, and therefore of the contexts the language is used in. Teachers themselves transmit information subconsciously about culture and society through their...
  • Slips are mistakes caused by temporary factors such as a learner being tired, nervous, excited or distracted. They can be compared with errors, which are caused by a learner not knowing something. Some people use the term mistake to describe slips....
  • Second language acquisition, or SLA, has two meanings. In a general sense it is a term to describe learning a second language. More specifically, it is the name of the theory of the process by which we acquire - or pick up - a second language. This...
  • The silent way is a methodology of teaching language based on the idea that teachers should be as silent as possible during a class but learners should be encouraged to speak as much as possible. There are three basic principles:- The learner needs...
  • A relative clause is a clause which tells us more about a noun or a noun phrase. There are two types, defining and non-defining. Defining add essential information to tell us what we are talking about, non-defining add extra information.Example‘They...

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