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  • VAK, or Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic, refers to one model of learning styles. The VAK model is comprised of three different learning styles, or preferred ways of learning. In some accounts, another style, tactile, is included.ExampleDunn and...
  • Self-assessment is where learners assess their language proficiency, rather than a teacher doing it.ExampleLearner portfolios often include a form of self-assessment, such as a checklist that relates to the completion of the learning aims. For a...
  • In language learning orthography can have two meanings. One is the way a language is spelt and the other is the way the letters are written. English orthography (spelling) is notoriously difficult for both native speakers and learners and produces...
  • A norm-referenced test measures a candidate's mark against what other people are achieving in the same test. It can be compared with a criterion-referenced test, which measures a candidate's mark against a series of criteria and produces a...
  • Language aptitude refers to the potential that a person has for learning languages. This potential is often evaluated using formal aptitude tests, which predict the degree of success the candidate will have with a new language. Aptitude tests vary...
  • The key points of a spoken or written text are the most important points.ExampleThe learners listen to a talk from an outside speaker on how to do a parachute jump and note the key points. They then check these together and write an article for...
  • A grammatical syllabus is based on the structures of a language. It can be compared to other types of syllabi based around tasks, vocabulary, functions or topics. Learners learn grammatical structures in a sequence that reflects their complexity,...
  • Global comprehension means understanding the general meaning of what you are listening to or reading. It can be compared to selective comprehension, which means understanding specific information in the text, and detailed comprehension, which means...
  • Free practice is a stage in a lesson where learners produce language using the target content freely. It can be compared with controlled practice, which involves learners producing the language previously focussed on in a restricted context....
  • Formal assessment uses formal tests or structured continuous assessment to evaluate a learner's level of language. It can be compared to informal assessment, which involves observing the learners' performance as they learn and evaluating them from...
  • In the field-dependent/independent model of cognitive or learning style, a field-independent learning style is defined by a tendency to separate details from the surrounding context. It can be compared to a field-dependent learning style, which is...
  • In the field-dependent/independent model of cognitive or learning style, a field-dependent learning style is defined by a relative inability to distinguish detail from other information around it. It can be compared to a field-independent learning...
  • An extension task is further activity around the aims of a class but after it, often as homework. Extension tasks can provide more, or different, forms of practice. They can also make classroom learning more meaningful, as they give learners a...
  • ESP

    English for Specific Purposes, or ESP, refers to learning English because you have a specific need. It can include the area of EPP, English for Professional Purposes.ExampleSurvival English for immigrants, English for Hotel Management, and English...
  • Discourse management refers to the ability to produce extended written and spoken texts, for example conversations.ExampleDiscourse management is often a criteria in formal evaluation of spoken and written language.In the classroomWe use a range of...
  • A diagnostic test is a test that helps the teacher and learners identify problems that they have with the language. Example At the start of the course, the teacher gives the learners a diagnostic test to see what areas of language need to be in...
  • A descriptive grammar is a set of rules about language based on how it is actually used. In a descriptive grammar there is no right or wrong language. It can be compared with a prescriptive grammar, which is a set of rules based on how people think...
  • The critical period hypothesis says that there is a period of growth in which full native competence is possible when acquiring a language. This period is from early childhood to adolescence. The critical period hypothesis has implications for...
  • A criterion-referenced test measures a candidate's mark against a series of criteria and produces a description of level based on that criterion. It can be compared with a norm-referenced test, which places a learner's mark against what other people...

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