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TBL
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TPR
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Pages

17 Mar 2006
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TBL
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TPR
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Pages

  • A substitution drill is a classroom technique used to practise new language. It involves the teacher first modelling a word or a sentence and the learners repeating it. The teacher then substitutes one or more key words, or changes the prompt, and...
  • Syntax is the study of the rules that control how language is structured first into clauses and then sentences. It can be compared with semantics, which is the study of how meaning is created by words.
  • Semantics is the study of how meaning is created by words. It is sometimes compared with syntax, which concerns the rules that dictate how sentences are formed.ExampleSemantic change is when a word changes meaning. It can become wider in meaning or...
  • Sentence stress is the pattern of stressed and unstressed words across a sentence. Normally this emphasis is on words that carry important information, although this can change significantly, depending on the specific meaning the speaker wants to...
  • The language skills of speaking, listening, writing and reading are often divided into sub-skills, which are specific behaviours that language users do in order to be effective in each of the skills.ExampleLearners developing the skill of listening...
  • Stress is emphasis given to certain syllables in words. In English, stress is produced with a longer, louder and higher pitched sound than unstressed sounds.ExampleThe word 'banana' has stress on the second syllable, the word 'photographic' on the...
  • The schwa is an unstressed vowel sound which occurs in many words of two syllables or more and in connected speech. It is the most common vowel sound in English and is represented by the symbol below.ExampleThe word 'banana' has a main stress on the...
  • Scanning is reading a text quickly in order to find specific information, e.g. figures or names. It can be contrasted with skimming, which is reading quickly to get a general idea of meaning.ExampleA learner taking a reading test needs to scan a...
  • The silent period hypothesis is the idea that when a language is learned, there should be a period in which the learner is not expected to actively produce any language. This is based on observations of a listening period in infants when they learn...
  • The stress pattern of a word is the way all the syllables are stressed in it. There can be main and secondary stress, or unstressed sounds.ExampleThe following are some stress patterns showing main stress and unstressed syllables:0o e.g. key/board...
  • A term from cognitive psychology; a script is a sequence of events and actions that are related to specific situations. Our understanding of a script in a situation allows us to predict what happens and therefore can help a learner interpret...
  • A syllabus is a document that describes what the contents of a language course will be and the order in which they will be taught. The content of a syllabus normally reflects certain beliefs about language and language learning.ExampleA syllabus...
  • A stress-timed language is a language where the stressed syllables are said at approximately regular intervals, and unstressed syllables shorten to fit this rhythm. Stress-timed languages can be compared with syllable-timed ones, where each syllable...
  • Short vowels are vowel sounds that are pronounced in a short form. In RP English the short vowel sounds are those in 'pet', 'pot', 'put', 'putt', 'pat' and 'pit', and the schwa sound. They can be compared with long vowel sounds.ExampleThe word 'ship...
  • Language is made up of systems and skills. The four systems of language are grammar, vocabulary, phonology and discourse.ExampleThe UCLES English proficiency exams explicitly test the four skills and also two systems, grammar and vocabulary.In the...
  • The target language is the language learners are studying, and also the individual items of language that they want to learn, or the teacher wants them to learn.ExampleIn a PPP lesson, the teacher first presents the target language, learners...
  • A tense of a verb is a past or present form.
  • Tone refers to the pitch changes made to affect the meaning of words and phrases. Pitch is a voice quality produced by vibrations of the vocal folds.ExampleMany learners have a first language that is tonal, i.e. the same word said in a high pitch...
  • TBL

    Task-based learning is an approach to language learning where learners are given interactive tasks to complete. In order to do this, they need to communicate. Once the task is complete, then the teacher discusses the language used.ExampleThe...
  • Time lines are diagrams used to represent the relationship between a verb tense and time, by showing what time - past, present or future - that tense covers.Example :Yesterday, I met Bob.In the classroomTime lines are one of many ways to talk about...
  • Transitive verbs have an object. They can be contrasted with intransitive verbs, which do not need an object.For example:'I like chocolate', 'What are you looking for?' and 'She's always wanted a little girl' are examples of transitive verbs.In the...
  • Teacher talking time (TTT) is the time that teachers spend talking in class, rather than learners. It can be compared with student-talking time. One key element of many modern approaches is to reduce the amount of TTT as much as possible, to allow...
  • In language learning, taboo language or subjects are areas that are regarded as prohibited by the culture of the learners or the teacher, therefore inappropriate for the classroom.ExampleSome learners in the Middle East regard the subject of same...
  • A teacher-centred approach is one where activity in the class is centred on the teacher. It can be compared to a learner-centred approach.ExampleA typical Presentation - Practice - Production (PPP) lesson tends to be teacher-centred, as the teacher...
  • TPR

    TPR means Total Physical Response. It is an approach to teaching language based on the idea that if you have to do something physical in response to language, then learning is more meaningful, and you learn faster.ExampleThe learners are looking at...
  • A turn is the time when a speaker is talking and turn-taking is the skill of knowing when to start and finish a turn in a conversation. It is an important organisational tool in spoken discourse.ExampleOne way that speakers signal a finished turn is...
  • A transformation exercise is an exercise where learners are given one sentence and need to complete a second sentence so that it means the same. The second sentence usually has a prompt.ExampleThe following is an example of a transformation question...
  • Test, teach, test (TTT) is an approach to teaching where learners first complete a task or activity without help from the teacher. Then, based on the problems seen, the teacher plans and presents the target language. Then the learners do another...
  • Top-down processing of language happens when someone uses background information to predict the meaning of language they are going to listen to or read. Rather than relying first on the actual words or sounds (bottom up), they develop expectations...
  • Tag questions are short questions which speakers use at the end of a statement. If the intonation of the tag is falling, then the speaker is asking for confirmation of the statement. If it is rising, then the speaker is unsure and is in fact asking...

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