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PPP
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  • L1

    L1 is a speaker's first language. L2 is the second, L3 the third etc.ExampleA learner whose L1 is Spanish may find Portuguese and Italian easy languages to learn because of a fairly close connection between the languages.In the classroomL1...
  • The lexical approach is a way of analysing and teaching language based on the idea that it is made up of lexical units rather than grammatical structures. The units are words, chunks formed by collocations, and fixed phrases.ExampleThe phrase '...
  • Methodology is a system of practices and procedures that a teacher uses to teach. It will be based on beliefs about the nature of language, and how it is learnt (known as 'Approach').ExampleGrammar Translation, the Audiolingual Method and the Direct...
  • To monitor is to watch and listen to learners while they are doing an activity but not to lead them in the activity. Teachers monitor to find out what problems the learners are having, and to identify the type of errors learners make as they produce...
  • A mingle is a short activity where learners walk around the classroom and talk to each other. An ice-breaker, where learners get to know each other, is a type of mingle.ExampleThe learners are talking about attitudes to marriage. They prepare a...
  • A morpheme is the smallest single unit of language that has meaning.ExampleThe word 'uneconomical' has three morphemes, 'un-', 'economy' and '-al'. 'un-' is a negative and a bound morpheme (appearing only with other morphemes), 'economy' is a free...
  • A model is an example of the target language a teacher shows learners to help them notice language patterns, or to encourage them to imitate. This could be a sentence, a model of an intonation pattern, or an entire text, such as an example of a...
  • Multiple Intelligence Theory says that there are at least eight different kinds of intelligence, and that human beings possess all of them to different degrees. Learners' profiles of intelligences will affect their preferences when learning. ...
  • A mind map is a visual record of new vocabulary, or other content. Vocabulary mind maps are also known as word maps or spidergrams, and are organised in a way that shows groupings or relationships between the words.ExampleThe teacher writes a list...
  • Students in a monolingual class speak the same first language, and will share most aspects of a culture. Monolingual classes can be compared to multilingual ones, where there are a variety of first languages.ExampleMonolingual classes are typically...
  • Metaphors are words and phrases that are not used in their literal meaning, but are used to describe something else.Example'I have a lot on my plate', 'Sales really took off' and 'He's a real couch potato' are all metaphors.In the classroomMetaphors...
  • Meta-language is the language teachers and learners use to talk about the English language, learning and teaching.ExampleWords and phrases such as 'verb', 'noun', 'present perfect continuous', 'phrasal verb' and 'reported speech' are all examples of...
  • A multilingual class is a class where the learners speak a variety of first languages. Multilingual classes can be compared to monolingual ones, where all the learners speak the same first language.ExampleMultilingual classes are typically found...
  • Neologisms are words or phrases that are invented to describe either new things or to give a new name to an old idea. Neologisms occur in the English language very frequently.ExampleNeologisms may become accepted language or disappear through lack...
  • Narrative tenses are verb tenses that are used to talk about the past. They are often found in stories and descriptions of past events, such as personal anecdotes.ExampleThe following are examples of narrative tenses:Past simple - 'We left on a...
  • The natural order hypothesis is the idea that children learning their first language acquire grammatical structures in a pre-determined, 'natural' order, and that some are acquired earlier than others. This idea has been extended to account for...
  • Outcomes are what learners should be able to do or have done at the end of the class or course. Outcomes are similar to aims but are more focussed on end results and often describe what actually happened rather than what the teacher intends to...
  • Open questions are questions which cannot be answered with just 'yes' or 'no'. Many of them begin with 'wh': why, where, who etc. Open questions can be compared to closed questions, which need only yes or no answers.Example'Why did you decide to...
  • An open class activity is an activity which is carried out with the whole group participating together with the teacher, rather than in closed groups or closed pairs. Open class work is often teacher-led.ExampleThe class have finished analysing a...
  • Onomatopoeia refers to words that have a sound that represents what the word means. They are one way in which new words can be created.Example'Splash', 'crackle' 'thud' and 'drip' are all examples of onomatopoeia.In the classroomOnomatopoeia are an...
  • A pejorative is a word or phrase that is used to express contempt.Example'Idiot' 'plonker' and 'moron' are pejoratives. 'Chav', 'Tree-hugger' and 'Bottom feeder' are other recent examples.In the classroomLearners are likely to hear this language...
  • Peer correction is a classroom technique where learners correct each other, rather than the teacher doing this.ExampleUsing a computer room, each learner quickly writes a short text on someone who has inspired them. They then move to the next...
  • Phonemes are the smallest units of sounds in a language. If a phoneme is changed, the word may change, e.g. change the l sound in 'lack' to a b and the word changes to 'back'.ExampleIn English, the sound e in 'pet' and i in 'bit' are examples of...
  • A pyramid discussion is a speaking activity where learners form progressively larger groups as they carry out a speaking task, which normally requires each grouping to reach agreement before joining another group.ExampleIn small groups, the learners...
  • Pre-listening activities are things learners do before a listening activity in order to prepare for listening. These activities have various purposes, including pre-teaching or activating vocabulary, predicting content, generating interest and...
  • Process writing focuses learners on the different stages and aspects of writing as they have been observed in good writers, and spend time on each, led by the teacher. These are; planning, drafting, revising, editing and considering the audience....
  • Pre-teaching is the teaching of the language learners need before an activity.ExampleThe learners are going to hear a short discussion on environmental issues. Before listening, they match key environment words to definitions.In the classroomIn...
  • Polysemy refers to the quality of some words to have several related meanings. A word which has several related meanings is thus a polyseme. These can be compared to homonyms, which are words that have several completely different meanings....
  • PPP

    PPP is a paradigm or model used to describe typical stages of a presentation of new language. It means presentation, production and practice. The practice stage aims to provide opportunities for learners to use the target structure. Criticism of...
  • Proficiency is how good a learner is at the language they are learning.ExampleProficiency tests such as IELTS and Cambridge Main Suite examinations test how good a candidate's overall ability in English is.In the classroomThe level of proficiency in...

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