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  • Categorisation is a task where learners have to put language into different categories.ExampleLearners categorise conjunctions according to their function.In the classroomExamples of activities include categorising words according to type, e.g. verb...
  • Informal assessment involves observing the learners as they learn and evaluating them from the data gathered. It can be compared to formal assessment, which involves evaluating a learner's level of language in a formal way, such as through an exam...
  • ELT

    English Language Teaching, or ELT, refers to the activity and industry of teaching English to non-native speakers.ExampleMany large editorial companies have ELT sections which publish books for English teachers and learners to use.Further links:...
  • A prescriptive grammar is a set of rules about language based on how people think language should be used. In a prescriptive grammar there is right and wrong language. It can be compared with a descriptive grammar, which is a set of rules based on...
  • Wh- questions ask for information and start with question words beginning wh-, although how is also included in this group. Wh- questions can be compared with ‘yes/no' questions, which ask for confirmation.ExampleQuestions starting which, what, who...
  • In a jumble activity learners need to put sentences or paragraphs from a text, or pictures illustrating a text, into the correct order.ExampleThe learners put jumbled pictures into a possible order and then read the text to see if their ideas are...
  • English for Academic Purposes, or EAP, refers to learning English in order to use it to study another subject.ExampleMany universities have pre-sessional EAP courses. Courses concentrate on specific skills the learners will need to benefit from...
  • Goals are the targets that learners and teachers have in language learning. These may be short- and long-term. Goals can be compared to aims, which usually refer to the targets of one lesson or unit of work.ExampleOne learner includes among her...
  • A labial consonant is produced by using your lips. Bilabial consonants are made by using both lips, labiodental consonants by using your top lip and your teeth. Some learners have problems recognizing the difference between labial and labiodental...
  • Word formation refers to the creation of new words.ExampleBlending (smog), loan words from other languages (parasol), and acronyms (scuba) are all examples of ways new words are formed.In the classroomAs a way of raising awareness of the processes...
  • Marker or model sentences are sentences that are clear examples of the target language of the lesson. Marker sentences help learners understand the structure, use and meaning of new language. They can also provide information about context,...
  • Teacher role refers to the different functions a teacher can have in a class. The role usually implies the relationship between the teacher and learner, particularly in terms of the autonomy the learner has over their learning.ExampleFacilitator,...
  • A conjunction is a word used to connect other words and phrases together. ExampleI wanted to go but she said no, and Tom just laughed. In the classroom Using conjunctions is problematic for learners because of how they connect with other words,...
  • Intensive reading involves learners reading in detail with specific learning aims and tasks. It can be compared with extensive reading, which involves learners reading texts for enjoyment and to develop general reading skills.ExampleThe learners...
  • In a general way sensory acuity means how good your senses are at doing what they should do. In the context of NLP, it refers to the ability to use our senses to make accurate observations about ourselves or other people.ExampleNLP recommends...
  • Guided writing involves a teacher working with a group of learners on a writing task. The aims of the task are based on what they have previously been learning about the writing process. Guided writing aims to support learners in this...
  • CBT

    Computer-based testing, or CBT, is testing using a computer for all or part of the test. Computer-based testing is cheaper, more accessible and easier to administer than manual forms of testing but there are limitations, as CBT which evaluates...
  • A generative grammar is a set of rules that tries to include all examples of correct language and predict how these will be formed. Example The tree structure is important in the context-free generative grammar model. It describes phrases in...
  • English for Speakers of Other Languages, or ESOL, refers to learning English as a new resident in a English-speaking country. ESOL is similar to ESL. It can be compared with EFL, which refers to learning and using English as an additional language...
  • Self-correction is when learners correct themselves instead of a teacher doing it. Teachers can involve learners in self-correction to different degrees, by giving learners more or less guidance as to the location and nature of their errors, and...
  • An approach is a way of looking at teaching and learning. Underlying any language teaching approach is a theoretical view of what language is, and of how it can be learnt. An approach gives rise to methods, the way of teaching something, which use...
  • A curriculum is a set of subjects for an educational institution, or a set of subjects within a course. In bilingual schools some subjects in the curriculum are taught in one language and some in the other.ExampleSchool curriculae give increasing...
  • Higher-order questions require answers that go beyond simple information and as such both the language and thinking behind them is more complex. They take learners into more abstract language functions, such as giving and justifying opinions,...
  • A scheme of work is a plan that defines work to be done in the classroom. Involving learners in defining a scheme of work, whether for a short project or a long course, is an important step towards motivation and involvement.ExampleBefore starting a...
  • Received pronunciation, or RP, refers to an accent in English regarded by many people as a ‘standard' accent. It has also been called ‘the Queen's English' or ‘BBC English'. In the past, RP had high status in the UK, indicating an educated speaker,...
  • A test's validity refers to how good it is. Validity can be compared with reliability, which refers to how consistent the results would be if the test were given under the same conditions to the same learners.ExampleFace validity refers to how good...
  • Extended speaking is a type of speaking activity that involves learners speaking for longer periods of time and in a freer form than controlled speaking practice. Extended speaking is an opportunity to practise all the skills needed for...
  • Cataphoric reference means that a word in a text refers to another later in the text and you need to look forward to understand. It can be compared with anaphoric reference, which means a word refers back to another word for its meaning. Example'...
  • In ELT interaction patterns are the different ways learners and the teacher can interact in the class. Using the right interaction pattern is a fundamental factor in the success of any activity and the achievement of aims.ExampleThe class are doing...
  • Group dynamics refer to the relationships between learners in a group and the impact that this has on the way they work.ExampleThe group dynamics of a class can change enormously when a new learner or teacher joins the class.In the classroomIn the...

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