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  • Cued Articulation [CA] was devised by Speech and Language Therapist Jane Passy in the late 1970s. It is an original system which uses simple hand cues to show where and how speech sounds are made.Each of the 49 sounds (phonemes) which make up the...
  • The term class-centred teaching draws attention to the importance of behaving in ways that encourage classes to develop into cohesive groups in which learning is regarded as a collective, collaborative endeavour and the performance of individuals is...
  • Web 2.0 has been described as many things by many people. For some, and educationalists are usually among them, web 2.0 is defined by the intense social interactivity now so common in online environments and by the ever expanding network of sites...
  • Controlled practice is a stage in a lesson where learners practise new language in a limited form. It can be compared to free practice, which involves learners producing language using the target content freely. Example The teacher has shown the...
  • Formative assessment is the use of assessment to give the learner and the teacher information about how well something has been learnt so that they can decide what to do next. It normally occurs during a course. Formative assessment can be compared...
  • Input refers to the exposure learners have to authentic language in use. This can be from various sources, including the teacher, other learners, and the environment around the learners. Input can be compared to intake, which is input then taken in...
  • Intercultural communicative competence, or ICC, refers to the ability to understand cultures, including your own, and use this understanding to communicate with people from other cultures successfully. ExampleICC could include understanding how...
  • Collaborative activity involves learners working together in order to complete a task. Collaboration increases the opportunities a student has to use the target language, and thereby develop their skills in it. Example The task-based learning...
  • Anchoring is a technique used to manage emotional states in Neuro-Linguistic Programming. It involves setting up an association with a desired mental state such as happiness or calm by creating an anchor stimuli to that state. Anchoring is one of...
  • In process writing, the editing stage is where the writer and peers edit the written work. It comes after the other stages: pre-writing activities, focusing ideas and structuring. Example The learners have written their first drafts, based on their...
  • A vocabulary bank is a collection of new words and phrases that the learner or class builds up as they learn. Example Some learners carry a collection of small cards with them. Each card has a word on it, with a definition or translation, and an...
  • Multi-word verbs, or MWVs, are verbs made up of two or more words. These words are a verb plus a preposition or particle. They are often known as phrasal verbs. Example‘Get on' and ‘turn off' are multi-word verbs. In the classroom Recording...
  • Summative assessment evaluates a learner's progress up to that point and provides a summary of where they are. It can be compared to formative assessment, which gives the teacher and learner helpful information for future work. Example At the end...
  • Information and Communication Technology, or ICT, refers to technological tools that are used to communicate and to manage information. ExampleInteractive Whiteboards are an example of ICT. In the classroom ICT is often part of a teacher-...
  • In the move away from teachers following one specific methodology, the eclectic approach is the label given to a teacher's use of techniques and activities from a range of language teaching approaches and methodologies. The teacher decides what...
  • If a test has content validity then it has been shown to test what it sets out to test. Content validity can be compared to face validity, which means it looks like a valid test to those who use it. Example Public examination bodies ensure...
  • Appropriacy refers to whether a word is suitable for the context it is being used in. It is an important aspect of language but an extremely complex one, as decisions about how to say things depend on understanding exactly what is right for the...
  • The direct method of teaching was developed as a response to the Grammar-Translation method. It sought to immerse the learner in the same way as when a first language is learnt. All teaching is done in the target language, grammar is taught...
  • The Interactive White Blackboard, or IWB, is a large interactive display attached to a computer and a projector. The teacher and learners control the computer through the display. Example The learners are looking at words that are difficult to say....
  • Mario Rinvolucri uses the term ‘thinking frames' to describe useful ways of thinking about what he does in the classroom. He compares these to filters or lenses through which we can see situations differently. Rinvolucri suggests that we can find...

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