- Eighteen years of experience can be one year's experience repeated seventeen times
- Experience will only contribute to expertise if practitioners are capable of learning from it
- To learn from experience requires that practitioners constantly reflect on their practices.
- tackle problems that increase their expertise : they problematise the routine
- approach a task in a way that maximises their opportunities for growth
- pursue new goals and challenges: problem-solving at an ever-higher level
- tackle problems for which they do not have to extend themselves
- approach a task in a way that minimises opportunities for growth
- have a diminishing number of problems to solve: they develop practised routines to handle all problems
4. Expertise is a process rather than a state.
Experts continuously extend the outer edge of their competence, by:
- taking on further challenges
- setting themselves higher standards
- working hard to reach those standards
Experts continuously reinvest their mental resources, in problematising what is taken as routine, in reformulating problems and in solving them.
Reducing problems to levels that can be handled by learned patterns and procedures gets people into ruts.
What do you think?