A teacher-centred approach is one where activity in the class is centred on the teacher. It can be compared to a learner-centred approach.

Example
A typical Presentation - Practice - Production (PPP) lesson tends to be teacher-centred, as the teacher leads the activity and provides necessary information, usually in an open-class arrangement.

In the classroom
Teacher-centred lessons are generally associated with traditional approaches to language learning, but teacher-centred activity can be useful in a variety of ways in teaching. The teacher is an effective model of the target language and an important source of information on how the learners are doing.

Further links:
https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/sue-sheerin-learner-centred-classroom
https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/tbl-pbl-two-learner-centred-approaches