The emergence of so many different kinds (or 'varieties') of international English has caused a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation models in the teaching of English.

This article presents my research into the pronunciation of global English and gives some teaching implications.

  • What is global English?
  • What are the implications of EIL for pronunciation?
  • The findings from research
  • What are the implications for pronunciation teaching?

What is global English?

The term 'global English' is being used increasingly nowadays. It is a means of demonstrating that English is spoken in every part of the world, both among speakers within a particular country who share a first language, and across speakers from different countries/first languages.

English is no longer spoken only by its native speakers in the UK, North America, Australia and New Zealand, and by those who learn English in order to communicate with native speakers. It is also spoken among non-native speakers within countries like India, the Philippines and Singapore and internationally among non-native speakers from a wide range of countries/first languages throughout the world. This last use of English is often referred to as 'English as an International Language' or EIL, and it is this kind of English which we will focus on here as it is the largest group of English speakers, numbering around 1.5 billion.

What are the implications of EIL for pronunciation?
The emergence of so many different kinds (or 'varieties') of international English has caused a number of linguists to question the use of native speaker pronunciation models in the teaching of English. Their argument is that native speaker accents are not necessarily the most intelligible or appropriate accents when a non-native speaker is communicating with another non-native speaker.

As regards intelligible pronunciation for EIL, we need to identify which pronunciation features are crucial for mutual understanding when a non-native speaker of English talks to another non-native speaker and which are not at all important. These are often not the same features that are crucial and unimportant for a native speaker of English.

The findings from research
In my research I analysed interactions between non-native speakers of English. The aim was to find out which features of British/American English pronunciation are essential for intelligible pronunciation, and which are not. The findings have been formed into a pronunciation core for teaching which is known as the Lingua Franca Core. This is to indicate that it is intended as a guide for lingua franca interactions, not interactions between a native and non-native speaker of English. The main features of the Lingua Franca Core are...

  • All the consonants are important except for 'th' sounds as in 'thin' and 'this'.
  • Consonant clusters are important at the beginning and in the middle of words. For example, the cluster in the word 'string' cannot be simplified to 'sting' or 'tring' and remain intelligible.
  • The contrast between long and short vowels is important. For example, the difference between the vowel sounds in 'sit' and seat'.
  • Nuclear (or tonic) stress is also essential. This is the stress on the most important word (or syllable) in a group of words. For example, there is a difference in meaning between 'My son uses a computer' which is a neutral statement of fact and 'My SON uses a computer', where there is an added meaning (such as that another person known to the speaker and listener does not use a computer).


On the other hand, many other items which are regularly taught on English pronunciation courses appear not to be essential for intelligibility in EIL interactions. These are...

  • The 'th' sounds (see above).
  • Vowel quality, that is, the difference between vowel sounds where length is not involved, e.g. a German speaker may pronounce the 'e' in the word 'chess' more like an 'a' as in the word 'cat'.
  • Weak forms such as the words 'to', 'of' and 'from' whose vowels are often pronounced as schwa instead of with their full quality.
  • Other features of connected speech such as assimilation (where the final sound of a word alters to make it more like the first sound of the next word, so that, e.g. 'red paint' becomes 'reb paint'.
  • Word stress.
  • Pitch movement.
  • Stress timing.


All these things are said to be important for a native speaker listener either because they aid intelligibility or because they are thought to make an accent more appropriate.

What are the implications for pronunciation teaching?

  • Students should be given choice. That is, when students are learning English so that they can use it in international contexts with other non-native speakers from different first languages, they should be given the choice of acquiring a pronunciation that is more relevant to EIL intelligibility than traditional pronunciation syllabuses offer. Up to now, the goal of pronunciation teaching has been to enable students to acquire an accent that is as close as possible to that of a native speaker. But for EIL communication, this is not the most intelligible accent and some of the non-core items may even make them less intelligible to another non-native speaker.
  • The non-core items are not only unimportant for intelligibility but also socially more appropriate. After all, native speakers have different accents depending on the region where they were born and live. So why should non-native speakers of an international language not be allowed to do the same?
  • Finally, students should be given plenty of exposure in their pronunciation classrooms to other non-native accents of English so that they can understand them easily even if a speaker has not yet managed to acquire the core features. For EIL, this is much more important than having classroom exposure to native speaker accents.


Jennifer Jenkins, lecturer in Sociolinguistics and Phonology at King's College, London 

First published in 2002



On reflection, I think that what you're referring to is Standard English as opposed to RP.  If a student has difficulty in the pronunciation of certain sounds, e.g. /th/ sounding as /d/ and /f/ then they are pronouncing that incorrectly and should be made aware of the same.

agreed on discussing the /th/ as the problems i'm facing is the students tend to pronounce /t/ the same as /ph/ pronounced as /p/ and /kh/ pronounced as /k/ and I bet this is a typical pronunciation problem here so it is compulsory to deal with..

It is funny that you should believe RP long dead, living in Britain as you do. Precisely, Dr. Jenkins (2000), in The Phonology of English as an International Language (OUP) quotes another author as dubbing RP speakers "the 'phantom speakers of English' because of the unlikelihood of a learner's coming into contact with one of them" (p. 14). By the way, in the above cited work, Dr. Jenkins fleshes out her  characterization of EIL and her rationale for her lingua franca core. It's a very interesting and instructive read, very recommendable.

Having said that, I must admit I was aghast when I heard my daughter saying 'free' for 'three'. She'll be getting extra homework for sure.

It is also a difficult problem for my students.I try to teach them the position of the tongue when we pronounce it.When we pronounce it our tongue must be between uper and lower teeth.But it doesn't give any effect.Then i use from audio-video materials.I think the most effective way of teaching pronunciation is to use from audio-video materials.

I'm not sure that RP (received pronunciation) is long dead.  I have some difficulties in the pronunciation of certain words in text books for example, that are sounded as 'RP'.   I am a non RP speaker.  That said, it [RP] is potentially something to measure against as a standard.  If the aim is to make language teaching, and subsequently learning as easy as possible for the student, then maybe it's necessary in some form or other.  That way, as a previous post commented, when non-native English language students are speaking with one another they have that as a benchmark.

This article is very useful for me, for a non native speaker of English language teacher. Now I have some ideas of do's and don'ts about teaching pronunciation. Thank you for interesting article for doing this research.

Dear Mrs Jennifer,
I have thought about the pronunciation as a single purpose to help students learn to speak 'correctly and accurately' thus it will help them to communicate in English. Now when I read your article, I change my mind and would start working on the difference purpose in the pronunciation teaching activity.
Thank you so much. Would you allow me to copy and paste your article to share with some colleagues? Many thanks.

Funny enough, quite a few EIL speakers manage to communicate with each other, but have trouble understanding native speakers.For this reason I often insist that they make some effort to adopt a native accent, because it's learning by doing -- improving their listening comprehension. By actively exercising their brain to motor function, the passive/receptive comprehension is strengthened, at least in my own experience. This is particularly true for stress timing, schwa sounds and connected speech.I also believe that the emotional aspects of English are carried by these components which are quite different from other languages. Without mastering the connectedness of English, it might be difficult to become truly fluent. But then again, this is not what every learner is aiming for.

English itself is a result of manifold pidginisation. Globalization and IT just added a new momentum. It is not enough to present some ecclectic observations.
What we need is a new systematic model of modified pronunciation, a kind of didactic core of the international pronunciational dialect highlighting the contrast between the sounds, since language is first of all a system of signs. Learners should cling to such a frame and at the same time be aware of  differences between International English and RP, or between BE and AmE. In any case any visual display of differences between learner's NATIVE SYSTEM and the TARGET SYSTEM can be mostly useful. We have arranged English sounds articulation into a kind of Mendelevian system of 24 consonant portal and 30 vowel boat (with sails of diphthongs and unstressed shva/schvu/shvu shadows under water).


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