In this, the first of two articles for TeachingEnglish, Alan Maley considers the benefits extensive reading can bring to English language learners and teachers.

Extensive reading: why it is good for our students… and for us. - reading article - guest writers

What is Extensive Reading (ER)?
Extensive Reading is often referred to but it is worth checking on what it actually involves.  Richard Day has provided a list of key characteristics of ER (Day 2002). This is complemented by Philip Prowse (2002). Maley (2008) deals with ER comprehensively. The following is a digest of the two lists of factors or principles for successful ER:

  1. Students read a lot and read often.
  2. There is a wide variety of text types and topics to choose from.
  3. The texts are not just interesting: they are engaging/ compelling.
  4. Students choose what to read.
  5. Reading purposes focus on: pleasure, information and general understanding.
  6. Reading is its own reward.
  7. There are no tests, no exercises, no questions and no dictionaries.
  8. Materials are within the language competence of the students.
  9. Reading is individual, and silent.
  10. Speed is faster, not deliberate and slow.
  11. The teacher explains the goals and procedures clearly, then monitors and guides the students.
  12. The teacher is a role model…a reader, who participates along with the students.

The model is very much like that for L1 reading proposed by Atwell (2006).  It has been variously described as Free Voluntary Reading (FEVER), Uninterrupted Silent Reading (USR), Sustained Silent Reading (SSR), Drop Everything and Read (DEAR), or Positive Outcomes While Enjoying Reading (POWER).

So what are the benefits of ER?
Both common sense observation and copious research evidence bear out the many benefits which come from ER (Waring 2000, 2006). There are useful summaries of the evidence in Day and Bamford  (1998: 32-39) and The Special Issue of The Language Teacher (1997) including articles by Paul Nation and others, and passionate advocacy in Krashen’s The Power of Reading. (2004). The journals Reading in a Foreign Language and the International Journal of Foreign Language Learning are also good sources of research studies supporting ER. (see references for websites) And there is the indispensable annotated bibliography,

So what does it all add up to?

ER develops learner autonomy.
There is no cheaper or more  effective way to develop learner autonomy. Reading is, by its very nature, a private, individual activity. It can be done anywhere, at any time of day. Readers can start and stop at will, and read at the speed they are comfortable with. They can visualise and interpret what they read in their own way. They can ask themselves questions (explicit or implicit), notice things about the language, or simply let the story carry them along.

ER offers Comprehensible Input.
Reading is the most readily available form of comprehensible input, especially in places where there is hardly any contact with the target language. If carefully chosen to suit learners’ level, it offers them repeated encounters with language items they have already met. This helps them to consolidate what they already know and to extend it. There is no way any learner will meet new language enough times to learn it in the limited number of hours in class. The only reliable way to learn a language is through massive and repeated exposure to it in context: precisely what ER provides.

ER enhances general language competence.
In ways we so far do not fully understand, the benefits of ER extend beyond reading. There is ‘a spread of effect from reading competence to other language skills ~ writing, speaking and control over syntax.’ (Elley 1991) The same phenomenon is noted by Day and Bamford (1998: 32-39) but they even note evidence of improvements in the spoken language. So reading copiously seems to benefit all language skills, not just reading.

ER  helps develop general, world knowledge.
Many, if not most, students have a rather limited experience and knowledge of the world they inhabit both cognitively and affectively. ER opens windows on the world seen through different eyes. This educational function of ER cannot be emphasised enough.

ER extends, consolidates and sustains vocabulary growth.
Vocabulary is not learned by a single exposure.  ER allows for multiple encounters with words and phrases in context thus making possible the progressive accretion of meanings to them.  By presenting items in context, it also makes the deduction of meaning of unknown items easier. There have been many studies of vocabulary acquisition from ER (Day et al 1991, Nation and Wang 1999, Pigada and Schmitt, 2006). Michael Hoey’s theory of ‘lexical priming’  (Hoey  1991, 2005) also gives powerful support to the effect of multiple exposure to language items in context.

ER helps improve writing.
There is a well-established link between reading and writing.  Basically, the more we read, the better we write.  Exactly how this happens is still not understood (Kroll 2003) but the fact that it happens is well-documented (Hafiz and Tudor 1989) Commonsense would indicate that as we meet more language, more often, through reading, our language acquisition mechanism is primed to produce it in writing or speech when it is needed. (Hoey 2005).

ER creates and sustains motivation to read more.
The virtuous circle - success leading to success - ensures that, as we read successfully in the foreign language, so we are encouraged to read more. The effect on self-esteem and motivation of reading one’s first book in the foreign language is undeniable. It is what Krashen calls a ‘home run’ book : ‘my first’! This relates back to the point at the beginning of the need to find ‘compelling’, not merely interesting, reading material. It is this that fuels the compulsion to read the next Harry Potter. It also explains the relatively new trend in graded readers toward original and more compelling subject matter. (Moses)

So why don’t teachers use ER more often?

A good question. When I conducted an inquiry among teachers worldwide, the answers came down to these:

a) Insufficient time.

b) Too costly.

c) Reading materials not available.

d) ER not linked to the syllabus and the examination.

e) Lack of understanding of ER and its benefits.

f) Downward pressure on teachers to conform to syllabi and textbooks.

g) Resistance from teachers, who find it impossible to stop teaching and to allow learning to take place.

Oddly, the elephant in the room: the Internet culture of young people, was not mentioned. There is work on the non-linear reading required by Internet users in Murray and Macpherson (2005), and articles on hypermedia by Richards (2000), and Ferradas Moi (2008) and some interesting reflections in Johnson  (2006).  The ‘non-reader’ issue will not go away but it is too important to deal with here and needs a separate article.

Extensive Reading for Teachers
My contention is that reading extensively, promiscuously and associatively is good for teacher, and for personal development. ‘The idea of the teacher having to be someone who is constantly developing and growing as a whole human being as a prerequisite for being able to truly help his or her pupils to be able to do the same, is such a core truth of teaching, yet it is typically ignored in FLT. (Peter Lutzker)

ER helps teachers to be better informed, both about their profession and about the world. This makes them more interesting to be around – and students generally like their teachers to be interesting people. For our own sanity we need to read outside the language teaching ghetto. For the sake of our students too.

It also helps teachers to keep their own use of English fresh. As we saw, the research on language learner reading shows how extensive reading feeds into improvements in all areas of language competence. (Krashen 2004) If this is true for learners, how much more true for teachers, who risk infection by exposure to so much restricted and error - laden English or who only read professional literature? Regular wide reading can add zest and pleasure to our own use of the language.

Teachers who show that they read widely are models for their students. We often tell students to ‘read more’ but why should they read if we do not? Teachers who are readers are more likely to have students who read too.

Furthermore, the books we read outside our narrow professional field can have an unpredictable effect on our practice within it.  So much of what we learn is learned sub-consciously. Its effects spread more by infection than by direct injection. And it is highly individual.  Individuals form associative networks among the books they read. This results in a kind of personal intertextuality, where the patterns form and re-form as we read more different books. This gives us a rich mental yeast which we can use to interact with others, while still retaining our individual take on the texts and the world.

So Extensive Reading has a lot to offer - both for our students and ourselves Read on!.


  • Atwell, Nancie. (2006)  The Reading Zone: how to help kids become skilled, passionate, habitual, critical readers.    New York: Scholastic
  • Bamford, Julian and Richard Day.  (2004)   Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Day, Richard, R. (2002) ‘Top Ten Principles for teaching extensive reading.’   Reading in a Foreign Language.  14 (2)
  • Day, Richard, R , Omura, Carole, Hiramatsu, Motoo.  (1991) ‘Incidental EFL vocabulary learning and reading.’  Reading in a Foreign Language.   7 (2)
  • Day, Richard, R  and Bamford, Julian.(1998)  Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Elley, W.B  (1991)  ‘Acquiring literacy in a second language: the effect of book-based programmes.’   Language Learning.  41.  375-411
  • Ferradas Moi, Claudia.  (2003)  ‘Hyperfiction: Explorations in Texture’ in  B.Tomlinson (ed)  (2003)  Developing Materials for Language Teaching.  London/New York: Continuum,  pp 221-233
  • Hafiz, F.M and Tudor, I. (1989)   ‘Extensive reading and the development of language skills.’   ELT Journal 43 (1)  4-13
  • Hoey, Michael  (1991) Patterns of Lexis in Texts.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hoey, Michael  (2005)  Lexical Priming.  London: Routledge
  • Johnson, Steven (2006)  Everything Bad is Good for You.  New York:  Riverhead.
  • Krashen, Stephen  (2nd edition. 2004 )  The Power of Reading: insights from the research.   Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Kroll, Barbara (ed) (2003) Exploring the Dynamics of Second Language Writing.: Chapter 10 Reading and Writing Relations.  New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Maley, Alan (2008)  ‘Extensive Reading: Maid in Waiting’ in B. Tomlinson (ed)  English Language Learning Materials: a critical review.  London/New York: Continuum  pp133-156.
  • Moses, Antoinette, (2004)   Jojo’s Story.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Murray, Denise and Pamela McPherson  (eds) (2005) Navigating to Read – Reading to Navigate.  Teaching in Action (series)  Sydney: NCELTR, McQuarie University
  • Nation, Paul  (1997)  ‘The language teaching benefits of extensive reading.’  The Language Teacher.  21 (5)
  • Nation, Paul  and  Wang Ming-Tzu, Karen  (1999) ‘Graded readers and vocabulary.’ Reading in a  Foreign Language.   12 (2)
  • Pigada, Maria and Norbert Schmitt  (2006) ‘Vocabulary acquisition for extensive reading.’  Reading in a Foreign Language.  18 (1)
  • Prowse, Philip.  ‘What is the secret of extensive reading?’  (accessed 4 April 2007)
  • Prowse, P.  (2002)  ‘Top ten principles for teaching extensive reading: a response.’ Reading in a Foreign Language.  14 (2)
  • Richards, Cameron (2000)   ‘Hypermedia, Internet communication and the challenge of re-defining literacy in the electronic age.’ Language Teaching and Technology.  4  (2,) 59-77.
  • Scmidtt, Ken   Lower level Extensive reading Opportunities for Lower-level Learners of EFL/ESL.  on
  • Waring, Rob  (2000)  The ‘Why’ and ‘How’ of Using Graded Readers. Oxford University Press, Japan
  • Waring, Rob  (2006)  ‘Why Extensive Reading should be an indispensable part of all language programmes’.  The Language Teacher  30 (7): 44-47

Useful Websites

Please note Alan's now finished writing on the site and will not be able to reply personally to your comments.



Dear Mr Narasimha Rao,Many thanks for your comments again.  Although reading may not be as fashionable as some other more trendy forms of communication, it is far from dead.  And when teachers manage to enthuse their students for reading, the results are spectaculart.  All the resaerch available points to the fact that ER is the single best way to acquire, reinforce and extend language acquisition. I have read you two poems but I do not think this is the right forum for offering comments on them.  But I would encourage you to continue to write in the poetic genre. Best wishes Alan

Dear Alan
I learned English mostly by reading. I still read a lot and the more I read, the more I learn. This gave me an idea to find out how other teachers learned English. I did a survey with 100 English teachers from Asian countries. They all said that they learned English by reading in general and by extensive reading in particular. This shows the power of ER. Sadly, ER is seldom practised in schools because of the reasons you mentioned in your article.
In my experience, many teachers (particularly in my country Nepal) do not read. They can use ER in their classroom only if they realise how it helps them develop their own English. I think, teachers should be made aware of this fact in their training courses. ER is probably the most pwerful tool for teacher development.

Dear Vishnu, Thanks so much for your confirmation of the importance reading has had and continues to have for you in both your language and personal development.I agree that much more emphasis might be put on the role of ER in  training courses.  ER is good fopr the students but, arguably, it is even better for the teachers. Best wishes, Alan

Hi Alan
Thank you for your article. I'm glad to see this topic on the agenda, as it's one very close to my heart!
You bring up lots of thought-provoking questions here. And I have to say that I feel that your call for teachers to read themselves is absolutely right. How can we hope to get learners to read if we don’t do it ourselves?  Today, though, I want to make my main comment on the teaching/learning question.
The reasons you give why ER isn't used more often in classes all ring true to me from my experience of working with teachers in many different cultural contexts. The last reason you give: 'Resistance from teachers, who find it impossible to stop teaching and to allow learning to take place,' interests me particularly, on a number of levels.
There are a range of factors which influence teachers’ focus on teaching to the detriment of learning. We know that there are issues of cultural and classroom context and issues of training, among others. The contention made by Krashen and others that ER does such magical things for the learner’s language development is actually bewildering - even threatening- to many teachers.  Teachers are supposed to teach, aren’t’ they? What can they teach with readers in the classroom?  When confronted with the topic of using readers, they become preoccupied with what they can do, when in fact, the focus might better be on what they don’t do.
So what should we be doing or not doing?  Well, as a teacher myself, as well as a writer and editor, I think there are some really great things you can do with extensive readers that exploit the full potential and benefits of ER. Those things are generally activities which harness the real excitement that students get once they start reading a book of their own. They are generally not to do with vocabulary and grammar!
For example, very recently I got an email from a 13-year-old Dutch girl. She had read one of my readers, at level 1. This girl’s English was really very limited, and at first I actually found it hard to read her message. But her teacher had got her class to read the book, then to each do a  little speaking and writing project on it. This girl had decided to draft some questions to ask the author, and then to try to find the author on the internet. She succeeded, and we exchanged about ten or twelve emails. She had lots of interesting questions about why I wrote it, and when and who..etc. She gave her presentation and  apparently it was a success. Apart from which she very ably managed an email correspondence with me during which we exchanged information about ourselves, our families, our pets and our lives.
I describe this little project because I think it’s an excellent example of how a teacher can really make full use of the ‘power of reading’ and allow learning to take place.
All the best

Hello all,I would just like to make a brief comment regarding extensive reading, learning English and using classroom time to this end. They can all come together with literature circles. I teach in Hanoi, Vietnam at the British Council here and although I am new to the country, I something I noticed straight away was that reading is still a major favourite pastime of many and desperately wanted to capitalize on this with my classes. I was introduced to literature circles just last year and have been eager to put it into practice to see if the potential there was real.It is. In a literature circle, each learner is given a specific role to play while and post-reading. The group joins together in class and discusses what they have read from the many view points dictated by their individual role preparation. In my experience, the result has been overwhelmingly positive. The students are motivated by the reading and especially by being given the responsibility to carry out a particular role within the circle. They engage in discussing what they have read using language you might be surprised they had at their disposal and they conduct the discussion on their own, without any input by the teacher. The teacher's role is more evident in setting up the experience and reflecting on it afterwards. Creating interest in the text before students tackle it, conducting a round-up session after the students have conducted their own circles and involving them in post discussion work, such as creating a story pyramid summary or a fleshing out a poem skeleton to portray a chosen character from the story are but a sample of where the teacher can be more instrumental. I have had nothing but positive experiences with literature circles and have seen its benefits as students gain confidence in themselves and really come alive.Here's the link that sparked my interest. I encourage everyone to give it a try.Good luckScott

Dear Scott,I apologize for the delay in responding to your posting.Thanks so much for drawing our attention to the power of reading circles, and for recommeding that useful website.  Those who have used literature circles can testify to their effectiveness, so I hope more people will give the idea a try.For anyone interested in getting started there is also a free (I think!) booklet tirtled Bookworms Club Reading Circles : Teacher's Handbook, published by OUP. This specifies in some detail the roles each member of a circle has to play.With best wishes Alan

Convincing a school to install ER books in the library is tough, as I know Thom understands!  It may actually take years! I would like some additional advice on how to do that, especially when the library claims not to have any space.  Remember that ER books are best used if they are in large multiple copies.  Just saying it will  help students to learn English because they can read them outside class is hopeless in some cases because here in Japan, students just don't read anything except comic books (Japanese ones).  Japan, in fact, rates near the bottom of the list of countries where the general public itself (or was it teens?) reads even one book per year.  (I forget where I got that fact, but I show my students that every reading class opening day, followed by the data that shows 70% of Japanese teens read comics.) So, no space, no motivation.  How do you convince a school?  Thanks in advance.Glenski

Dear Glenski, Many thanks for your posting and apologies for the delay in replying.I wish I had a simple, straightforward answer to your question.  Noi space, sounds like a bureaucratic obstacle.  When something is important, as ER is, then space can usually be found, given the will to find it!  Is there a way of cosying up to the librarian, so as to persuade her/him?  It is difficult to give firm advice not knowing the precise context (especially the hierarchy) within which you work.One possible way around it would be to abandon the notion that ER books are best used in class sets.  Of course, that is one way to use them (though it flouts the 'free-choice' criterion I cited in my original article.)  but there are plenty of cases where teachers have managed to persuade students each to buy a different title, that appeals to them.  Students then read their own book, mainly out of class.  When they finish, they exchange it with another students.  This way, you do not need storage space, and students get to read more books.This kind of system is not easy to operate, i agree, but it can also contribute to solving the second problem you mention: motivation.  One feature many teachers use with a 'free choice' option is to ask students to give regular book reports on what they are reading.  This tends to make students want to read what others have found interesting.Other ways of motivating students can be found in the Bamford and Day book I mentioned in an earlier blog: Extensive Reading Activities for Teaxching language (CUP)I am sorry if I have not responded fully to what you asked.  Deep-seated, complex problems, like the ones you have raised,  rarely have simple, clear-cut answers, and it would be foolish of me to pretend otherwise.  But usually, given persistence and a willingness to try a number of options, yieds at least some dividends. Best wishes, Alan  

Dear Sue,Thank you so much for your thoughtful and practical comments.As you say, there is a risk that teachers may feel they are being sidelined if ER simply involves letting students read.  In fact, of course, teachers who really want to implement ER have a tremendous amount to do in terms of persuading the powers that be that this is a worthwhile direction, in resourcing the books to read, in organising the reading, in monitoring and keeping records, in enthusing the students.  And, as you pointed out, in finding activities which do not interrupt the reading but which add value to it.  Your example of your e-mail correspondence with the Japanese student is an excellent demonstartion of what can be done.  Small-scale personal projects like this can give added value and meaning to the reading itself.Thanks again for your contribution. best wishes Alan

Hi AlanGreatly enjoyed the article on Extensive Reading - it's good to see all arguments laid out so clearly. Just wanted to pick up on a couple of things in the Comments.Under Activities you wrote to Neli:"2. Where I have some doubts is your contention that students need 'interesting activities' to accompany the books they read."I think the key word here is 'accompany' - activities or questions whether in the books or accompanying them in my view only distract the learner from the story. In ER we are using the power of narrative to facilitate learning and it is in the nature of good story telling that the text itself stimulates thoughts and questions in the reader's mind. In other words a well-written story will contain within itself 'comprehension activities' which get the reader thinking.In Sue's excellent Comment she refers to an email exchange with a Dutch student who had read one of her books. Email is such a powerful medium for direct contact between authors and readers. Here I must declare an interest as Series Editor of Cambridge English Readers. On our website we have a facility called Ask the Author where students can email the writer of a book they are reading or have read and get an immediate reply. It's predictably popular and in my view brings a new immediacy to ER. The website also has an article describing how the Ask the Author feature came about.Hoping this is useful Very best wishes Philip


Add new comment

Log in or register to post comments